of December 19, 2016 No. 73
About seed farming of forest plants
Based on subitem 1.17 of Item 1 of Article 12, of Item 2 of Article 23, of Item 8 of Article 24 of the Forest code of the Republic of Belarus the Ministry of forestry of the Republic of Belarus DECIDES:
The instruction about procedure for creation (forming), identification and operation of objects of permanent forest seed base on sites of forest fund depending on the need for seeds and landing material of forest plants for reforestation and afforestation (is attached).
M. M. Amelyanovich
It is approved
Minister of Defence of the Republic of Belarus lieutenant general
November 16, 2016
A. A. Ravkov
It is approved
Minister of Education of the Republic of Belarus
November 21, 2016
M. A. Zhuravkov
It is approved
Minister of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus
November 16, 2016
V. A. Vashchenko
It is approved
Managing affairs of the President of the Republic of Belarus
December 5, 2016
V. V. Sheiman
It is approved
Chairman of Presidium of National academy of Sciences of Belarus
November 17, 2016
It is approved
The chief of the State inspection of protection of animal and flora in case of the President of the Republic of Belarus
December 5, 2016
S. V. Novikov
It is approved
Chairman of the Minsk city executive committee
November 16, 2016
Approved by the Resolution of the Ministry of forestry of the Republic of Belarus of December 19, 2016 No. 73
1. This Instruction determines procedure by the legal entities conducting forestry, seed farmings of forest plants.
2. Seed farming of forest plants is performed for providing the legal entities conducting forestry, seeds of forest plants with valuable heritable properties and high sowing qualities for reforestation and afforestation by creation (forming), identification and operation on sites of forest fund of permanent forest seed base (further - PLSB) on selection and genetic basis and selection and genetic objects and serves the purposes of increase in productivity, quality and stability of forest plantings.
3. In this Instruction the following terms and their determinations are applied:
archives of clones of plus trees - the forest plantings which are specially created in the vegetative way for preserving gene pool and studying of heritable properties of plus trees;
geographical cultures - the pilot forest cultures created in homogeneous forest vegetation conditions by landing material from seeds of forest plants of different geographical origin for the purpose of their testing in new forest vegetation conditions;
genotype - the genetic (heritable) constitution of organism functioning as single system of the interacting genes and determining regulation of reaction of individual;
wood breed - sort and type of wood plants;
introduction of plants - one of ways of increase in productivity of the woods, strengthenings of their protective role, improvement of landscape and decorative qualities, enrichments of vegetable fund of the country, its vegetable resources;
test forest cultures - the pilot forest cultures of seed posterities of plus trees, plus forest plantings, forest seed plantations and permanent forest seed sites created for the purpose of their genetic assessment;
plant clone - posterity of one vegetativno the multiplied plant;
the combinational capability - capability of organism to transfer genetic superiority to the descendants;
the combinational capability general (further - Construction Department) - capability of organism to transfer the genetic superiority to descendants when crossing with any other organisms of this type;
the combinational capability specific (further - SKS) - capability of organism to transfer genetic superiority to descendants when crossing only with some other organisms;
forest genetic fund, gene pool - set of genes and genotypes which are available for individuals of this population;
the forest genetic wildlife reserve - the site of forest fund typical on forest vegetation conditions for the specific climatic region allocated for the purpose of preserving gene pool of specific wood breed;
forest seed division into districts - establishment of geographical and ecological areas of use of seeds in case of reforestation and afforestation;
uterine plantation - the forest plantings created for the purpose of receipt of shanks of plus trees;
population and ecological forest cultures - the pilot forest cultures created in two-three most widespread types of forest vegetation conditions for the purpose of testing of trees of the main breed in specific types of forest vegetation conditions;
population - set of the individuals of one type populating certain territory, who are freely crossed with each other and in a varying degree isolated from other sets;
sowing qualities of seeds of forest plants - set of the signs characterizing suitability of seeds for crops;
permanent forest seed sites (further - PLSU) - the forest plantings of natural origin or forest cultures, highly productive and high-quality for specific forest vegetation conditions, which are specially created (created) for receipt of seeds of forest plants in them during long term;
seed farming of forest plants - the activities performed for providing the legal entities conducting forestry, seeds of forest plants with valuable heritable properties and high sowing qualities for reforestation and afforestation by creation (forming), identification and operation on sites of the PLSB forest fund on selection and genetic basis and selection and genetic objects;
family of plants - seed posterity of one plant;
plant phenotype - set of all signs and properties of plant created on the basis of genotype in development in interaction with environmental conditions;
ecotype (climatype, эдафотип) - the genetic division of type resulting from action of selection, peculiar environmental conditions and manifestation of adaptation to these conditions;
elite - plants which posterity has the high level of manifestation and inheritance hozyaystvenno of valuable signs and properties.
4. PLSB on sites of forest fund is created taking into account ensuring needs of forestry for seeds of forest plants with high heritable and sowing qualities.
5. Creation of PLSB includes:
selection assessment of local forest plantings, including perspective introduced species, with allocation of plus forest plantings and trees;
genetic assessment of local and inorayonny populations taking into account forest seed division into districts in geographical, population and ecological forest cultures with selection of grades populations;
genetic assessment of plus trees or their clones on seed posterity with allocation of elite;
implementation of actions on preserving genetic resources by allocation of forest genetic wildlife reserves, creation of archives of clones of plus trees, genetic banks of seeds of forest plants;
creation of forest seed plantations (further - LSP) on the basis of vegetative and seed reproduction.
6. During creation of PLSB the concentration of forest seed objects (first of all LSP) providing the best organization of works on their forming and operation shall be provided.
LSP are created based on projects.
7. LSP divide into categories on the following main indicators: to purpose, genetic level, methods of reproduction of initial material and method of bookmark.
Depending on the selection purposes on LSP group posterities of the plus trees which are selected on one or several selektiruyemy signs including in biomass, quality of trunk, technical properties of wood, smoloproduktivnost, productivity and quality of seeds, resistance to wreckers and diseases, and also to technogenic factors and in other signs.
On genetic level allocate LSP of the first (further – LSP-I), to LSP of the second (further – LSP-II) and the subsequent procedures.
The plantations created by posterity of plus trees (selection on phenotype), carry to LSP-I.
Are created by LSP-II in the vegetative way from posterity of the plus trees which passed genetic assessment (elite trees).
On methods of reproduction of initial material and method of bookmark differentiate the following categories of forest seed plantations:
LSP of vegetative origin (clonal) created by landing of vaccinated saplings with the closed root system. Imparted landing material it is used according to the technical regulatory legal act obligatory for observance;
LSP of seed origin (semeystvenny) created by landing of forest seedlings or crops of forest seeds from plus trees. Forest seedlings are used according to the technical regulatory legal act obligatory for observance.
8. During creation of PLSB proceed from need of use mainly of the local gene pool of forest plants which is most adapted for local climatic conditions. Use of inorayonny reproductive material according to forest seed division into districts is in some cases allowed.
9. Seeds of forest plants are subdivided into the following categories:
normal seeds of forest plants - the seeds of forest plants prepared on PLSU from normal trees of the main breed in forest plantings of normal selection category (economic seed plantings, forest genetic wildlife reserves);
the improved seeds of forest plants - the seeds of forest plants received on the forest seed objects created or allocated on the basis of phenotypical selection, but not tested on posterity (plus forest plantings, plus trees, LSP-I);
genetically improved seeds of forest plants - the seeds of forest plants received on the forest seed objects created or allocated on the basis of provisional genetic estimate on posterity (the plus forest plantings allocated with candidates for grades populations, LSP-I in whom during thinning clones of forest plants - candidates for elite are left; LSP created with use of vegetative posterities of trees - candidates for elite);
high-quality seeds of forest plants - the seeds of forest plants received on PLSB objects, which passed final genetic assessment, allocated as grades and included in the State register of grades and wood and shrubby breeds (LSP-II, created with use of vegetative posterities of elite trees; forest plantings of grades populations).
10. Responsibility for correctness of specifying of category of seeds of forest plants is born by the legal entities conducting forestry.
11. Financing of actions, research and development works on seed farming of forest plants is performed at the expense of means of the republican budget and own means of the legal entities conducting forestry.
12. Responsibility for safety of objects of PLSB and selection and genetic objects is born by the head of the legal entity conducting forestry.
13. Base for the organization of seed farming of forest plants are the best forest plantings allocated in case of selection inventory count.
14. Selection inventory count of forest plantings is performed by the legal entities conducting forestry, the project and forest management organizations, scientific institutions.
15. Selection inventory count is carried out in the ripe, coming and middle-aged natural forest plantings, certain groups of types of the wood, in forest cultures of the same groups of age created from seeds of forest plants of the known origin, in highly productive forest cultures of the introduced types which gene pool is subject to protection and use for the purpose of selection, and also on selection and seed-growing objects.
16. In case of selection assessment trees subdivide into three main categories: plus, normal and minus. Signs on which select plus trees are determined by ultimate goals of selection.
Plus trees - the trees considerably exceeding on one or several signs and properties the surrounding trees of one with them age, phenological form growing in identical forest vegetation conditions.
In case of selection on increase in productivity and quality of the woods in category of plus forest vegetation conditions in the main types first of all in plus forest plantings select the trees differing in pryamostvolnost, polnodrevesnost, good clarification of trunks from boughs, lack of vilchatost, resistance to adverse factors of the circle, wreckers and diseases.
In high-half-musical forest plantings, even-aged, net on structure, plus trees shall exceed average values of forest stand (for the corresponding phenological form) on height for 10% and more, on diameter - for 30% and more.
In the forest plantings undergone by gradual and selective cabins allocation of the plus trees exceeding average values of forest stand on height for 8% at least, to diameter - for 20%, but meeting all above-mentioned requirements is allowed.
In uneven-aged forest plantings which age of trees differs more than on one class selection of plus trees is made separately within each age group.
Selection criteria of plus trees for the special purposes (productivity of biomass, special technical characteristics of wood, content of tanning matter in bark, productivity and quality of fruits and seeds of forest plants, smoloproduktivnost, immunity, resistance to adverse natural and anthropogenous factors) are determined by the corresponding recommendations of research establishments. At the same time excess of diameter and height of the selected trees over average values of forest planting can be not considered.
At the introduced types of forest plants carry the semenosyashchy trees differing in high stability in new climatic conditions, the best indicators on growth, quality of trunk and other selektiruyemy signs to plus. Plus trees protect from damages.
Normal trees are the trees of good and average quality for certain forest vegetation conditions constituting the main part of forest planting.
Minus trees are the trees of the upper tier, and also the trees which are lagging behind in growth, low-quality with different defects and defects (krivostvolnost, fautnost, etc.), and having height and diameter in even-aged forest planting less than 80% of averages on forest planting.
17. In case of selection inventory count forest plantings also subdivide into three categories: plus forest plantings, normal forest plantings, minus forest plantings.
Plus forest plantings - highly productive and high-quality forest plantings for specific forest vegetation conditions. According to the procedure of leaving in them cut down minus trees of the main wood breed, and also the trees of the accompanying tree species hampering the growth of plus trees.
Normal forest plantings - forest plantings of high and average productivity and stability, good and average quality for certain forest vegetation conditions.
Minus forest plantings - plantings of low productivity, stability and bad quality for these conditions of the habitat with quantity of minus trees of 40% and above.
18. The plus trees and forest plantings created on their basis by LSP-I which are selected on phenotypical signs are subject to obligatory genetic assessment on productivity, quality of trunk and other selektiruyemy signs of their seed posterities in test forest cultures.
19. The genetic value of plus trees is determined by their capability to keep selektiruyemy signs (properties) in case of sexual and vegetative reproduction. Plus trees which genotype cannot be completely or with the set frequency it is reproduced in seed posterity, are subject only to cloning.
20. The provisional estimate on elitism is performed in test forest cultures: for fast-growing tree species at the age of 8-12 years, and for slow-growing - 15-25 years.
The posterities which are grown up from seeds of plus trees compare to control on growth, stability, quality of trunk and other indicators. Plus trees which seed posterities at this age have authentically the best indicators on hozyaystvenno valuable signs and properties in comparison with control use for creation of forest seed plantations of the increased genetic value (LSP-II).
Plus trees can be rejected in case of sharply expressed instability of their posterities to diseases, wreckers and other adverse factors of the circle. Other posterities are subject to further testing.
21. Final assessment of trees on elitism can be made based on testing of seed posterities to the age at least 1/2 age of the cabin accepted for this wood breed.
22. For the purpose of assessment of general combinational capability of plus trees or from controlled crossings - for assessment of specific combinational capability of parent trees create test forest cultures with use of seeds of forest plants from free pollination.
Seeds of forest plants prepare directly from plus trees or their fructifying vegetative posterities on clonal LSP.
As control use mix of seeds of forest plants at least from 30 accidental trees of the same forest planting in which the tested plus trees are selected (possible variations from this requirement make a reservation special techniques). Plus trees and control shall belong to one phenological form (for oak, beech, fir-tree, aspen, etc.).
The control is necessary for each group identical on phenological accessory and conditions of the habitat of plus trees.
23. For preserving gene pool of plus (elite) trees create archives of clones of plus trees according to the special program. In archives of clones of plus trees vegetative posterities of plus (elite) trees of this forest seed area concentrate.
Archives of clones of plus trees are also used as experimental objects for assessment of heritable properties of plus trees on such indicators as krone form, terms of the beginning and the end of vegetation, feature of blossoming and fructification, morphological features of cones and quality of seeds of forest plants, resistance to extreme weather conditions, wreckers and diseases. These data are necessary for the subsequent selection of signs of clones of plus trees, perspective on complex, for the purpose of the bookmark LSP-II.
If necessary archives of clones of plus trees can be used for receipt of seeds of forest plants from controlled pollination for the purpose of laying of test forest cultures, and also procurement of small batches of shanks for bookmark LSP.
24. One of the directions in improvement of quality of the created woods is use in seed farming of forest plants of geographical and ecological variability of forest forming types.
Posterities of climatic ecotypes (climatypes) and soil ecotypes (edafotip) of the main lesoobrazovatel are tested in specially created geographical forest cultures.
Preliminary data on results of genetic assessment of climatypes (edafotip) can be received at the age of cultures of 8-25 years (depending on breed), final - at the age of at least 1/2 age of the cabin, accepted for this wood breed.
Climatypes estimate on safety and intensity of growth at height and on diameter, amount and quality of trunk, inventory of wood, resistance to adverse factors of the circle, especially to mushroom, bacterial and other diseases.
Comparative analysis of posterities needs to be carried out taking into account versions and forms of this or that type.
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