It is registered
Ministry of Justice
Republic of Tajikistan
On January 8, 2016 No. 47
of December 30, 2015 No. 791
About the Program of reform of the water sector of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2016 - 2025
According to article 8 of the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan "About the state perspectives, concepts, strategy and programs of social and economic development of the Republic of Tajikistan" and for the purpose of determination and assistance in realization of state policy of the Republic of Tajikistan in the field of rational use of the water Government of the Republic of Tajikistan resources decides:
1. Approve the Program of reform of the water sector of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2016 - 2025 it (is applied).
2. To the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of the Republic of Tajikistan, the State committee on investments and management of state-owned property of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Agency of melioration and irrigation under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, to the relevant ministries and departments in accordance with the established procedure within the means provided in the Government budget and attraction of foreign investments to take necessary measures for implementation of this Program.
3. Determine the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources of the Republic of Tajikistan the coordinator of program implementation of reform of the water sector of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2016 - 2025 and charge to it to take the course of accomplishment of this Program under control and every half-year to provide information on the course of its accomplishment in the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Prime Minister of the Republic of Tajikistan
Approved by the Order of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of December 30, 2015 No. 791
Reform of the water sector began with adoption of the Presidential decree of the Republic of Tajikistan of March 15, 2006, No. 1713 "The strategy of reforming of systems of public administration" and provides several stages. The program of reforming of agricultural industry of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012 - 2020" adopted by the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan on August 1, 2012 provides basic provisions of reforming of the water sector, including transition to the Integrated water resources management (further - IUVR) in river basins. Reform of the water sector is acknowledged as inseparable part of reform of agricultural industry.
The presidential decree of the Republic of Tajikistan of November 19, 2013 No. 12 "About enhancement of structure of executive bodies of the government of the Republic of Tajikistan" is the legal basis of the beginning of reforming of the water sector. In connection therewith by the Decree Ministry of Melioration and Water Resources of the Republic of Tajikistan it was liquidated, political functions in the water sector were assigned to the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources of the Republic of Tajikistan, and obligation on irrigation and melioration on the newly created Agency of melioration and irrigation under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan.
The purpose of reform of the water sector is creation of bases of decentralization of management system and assignment of part of functions on operation in the course of separation of responsibility between the ministries and departments and partially non-state organizations. The offered reform is based on the general regulating principles of IUVR and in them special value is given to questions of social, economic interests and the environment by means of the steady weighed management and development of water resources.
The program of reform of the water sector of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2016 - 2025 (further - the Program), reflects questions of reform of the water sector in all splits connected with water use. In the subsequent Sections the water sphere is specified as "sector", and different types of special use of water, for example irrigation or hydropower as "split". The main problems of the water sector of the Republic of Tajikistan at first are given in the Program, and then ways of their solution by means of reform are proposed.
1. The Republic of Tajikistan the highland where mountains occupy 93% of its territory. Annual average rainfall in Tajikistan constitutes about 760 mm, changes from 100 mm in some certain regions of the South of the country to 2400 mm at Fedchenko's peak.
2. Glaciers. Total area of glaciers constitutes 11, one thousand sq.km or 8% of the territory of the country. The water resources containing in glaciers constitute about 845 km3.
3. Rivers. In Tajikistan there are 947 rivers, direct and seasonal water currents (Sai) which renewable water drain on average constitutes 64 km3 in year, including 1,1 km3/in year in river basin of the Syr Darya and 62,9 km3/in year in river basin of Amu Darya. About 55% of annual average water resources of the basin of the Aral Sea are created in Tajikistan.
4. From the hydrographic point of view in Tajikistan there are basins of the Amu Darya Rivers, the Syr Darya, Pyandzha, Vakhsh, Zeravshan, Kafirnigan and podbasseyna of Karatag, Shirkent, Kyzylsu-Yakhsu, Isfara, Hodzhabakirgan, Aqsa and Sai Asht - Samgar.
5. Lakes and water storage basins. In Tajikistan there are 1300 natural lakes with the water area of 705 sq.km. The total amount of water resources in these lakes constitutes km 46,3 3, from which 20 km3 are fresh. The total quantity of water storage basins in Tajikistan constitutes 11 units with net effective volume of procedure for 7,5 km3.
6. Underground waters. Renewable underground water resources in Tajikistan constitute 18,7 km3/in year from which 2,8 km3/in is used year.
7. Returnable exhaust waters. The relief of Tajikistan generally consists of mountains, the foothills and hills with big biases and it promotes forming and dumping into the rivers of large volumes of returnable waters. The amount of returnable waters makes about 3. 5, 4.0 km3/in year from which 3,0 km3 drainage returnable waters from the irrigated lands constitute, 0,50 km3 household and industrial drains.
8. The main water users in Tajikistan are drinking water supply and sanitation, hydropower, the irrigated agriculture, the industry, fishery, recreation and the environment. Tajikistan actually uses only 17-20% of the water resources which are created in its territory. On average for the period the made observations (1985 - 2014) the annual amount of the water resources used by different industries of national economy made from 8,0 to 14,5 km3/year.
9. Drinking water supply and sanitation. Drinking water supply and sanitation are the most important split of the water sector and its development is considered paramount priority of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan. The water amount used by this split makes about 400 million m3 / in year. From this number of 103-105 million m3 it is used directly by the population. Needs of drinking water consumption and sanitation make less 5,0 of % of the total amount of water consumption of all country.
10. Hydropower. The hydropower is one of important spheres of the water sector of Tajikistan, constituting basis of energy potential of the country. From 5414 MW of the available energy capacities of the country of 4996 MW or 93% fall on hydropower. In annual production of the electric power the share of hydropower constitutes 98-99%. Important feature of hydropower is that it, using potential energy of water, does not perform its irretrievable consumption. It does not make impact on natural quality of water. Annually water in volume of 30-35 km3 passing through hydroelectric power stations of the country develops in general 16-17 billion kW. hours of the electric power.
11. Agricultural irrigation. The sector of the irrigated agriculture in ensuring food security of the country is important. About 80% of agricultural products are provided at the expense of the irrigated lands. The total amount of the water which is taken away from all sources for irrigation averages 8,0-10,0 km3/in year. More than 90% of total amount of water intake from natural sources are used for needs of the irrigated agriculture.
12. Industry. Industrial production in initial years of independence of the country considerably decreased, but in recent years began to be recovered quickly. In 1990 in the industry 607 million m3 of water were used, at present general water consumption reached 240-300 million m 3, that is equal to 2-3% of general water consumption in the country. Considerable part of water for the industry gets from underground waters.
13. Fishery, is also considered important split of water consumption. Fishery ponds are constructed on wide coast of the rivers or near their floodplains that reduces irretrievable losses of water. On average the water amount used by fishery ponds makes 90-100 million m3 / in waited for 0,8-1,5 of % of the total amount of water consumption in the country.
14. Recreation on waters. The territory of the country has high recreational potential. In the republic 162 natural landscape water monuments are revealed, more than 200 mineral sources, 18 mud and salty lakes are registered. The amount of the used water in recreational zones of the republic is not determined, but it is known that the water used at the same time, after cleaning partially returns to sources.
15. Environment. Use of water for maintenance of the environment plays huge role. In spite of the fact that now in the republic there are no specific data on amounts of use of water for the environment, it is known that for its stability and development sufficient amounts of water are used. For the purpose of environmental protection in Tajikistan the woods, lakes and marsh grounds are water users.
16. Basis of the water legislation of Tajikistan are the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Water code other laws and regulatory legal acts of the Republic of Tajikistan, the agreement, the convention and other international, regional and interstate legal acts recognized by the Republic of Tajikistan.
17. The Majlisi Oli of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, Coordination Council under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan on hydro-electric questions, the ministries, departments, local executive bodies of the government and public associations participate in process of management of water resources of Tajikistan.
18. The ministries, committees, the agencies and other organizations connected with water resources management have performing powers on realization of water policy for the benefit of national economy and water users.
19. Despite considerable changes in structure of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and creation of new bodies, distribution of obligations and powers in the field of management of water between different structures it is still performed on the basis of Regulations on differentiation of powers of specially authorized state bodies on regulation of use and protection of waters approved by the order of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of February 4, 2002, No. 39.
20. State bodies on water resources management in the Republic of Tajikistan are:
- Ministry of Energy and Water Resources;
- Ministry of Agriculture;
- Ministry of Health and Social Protection;
- Committee on environmental protection;
- Committee on emergency situations and civil defense;
- Head department of geology;
- Service of the state supervision of safe operation in the industry and to mountain supervision;
- Agency of melioration and irrigation;
- State unitary enterprise "Hochagiya kommunala manziliya";
- Open joint-stock holding company of "Barka Tochik".
21. In cooperation with the state institutes in the field of water resources management the activities are performed by public associations. Associations of water users (further - AVP) and Federations of AVP in Tajikistan are the specialized public associations having the right to contain and manage intraeconomic irrigating and collector and drainage systems.
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