of September 4, 2015 No. 618
About approval of the Program of food security and power supply in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2015-2017
For the purpose of realization of the strategic priorities of sustainable development determined by the National sustainability strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2013-2017 approved by the Presidential decree of the Kyrgyz Republic of January 21, 2013 No. 11, of ensuring food security of the country and rapid response to internal and external threats of stability of the food market of the republic the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic decides:
- The program of food security and power supply in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2015-2017 (further - the Program) according to appendix 1;
- The actions plan of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic on program implementation (further - the Actions plan) according to appendix 2.
2. To the ministries and administrative departments responsible for implementation of the Actions plan to provide its execution and quarterly no later than the 15th following the accounting period, to provide the relevant information in the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation of the Kyrgyz Republic.
3. To the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation of the Kyrgyz Republic:
- together with the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic to take the necessary measures following from this resolution;
- following the results of every quarter no later than the 25th following the accounting period to provide information on the course of accomplishment of the Actions plan in Government office of the Kyrgyz Republic.
4. To impose control of execution of this resolution on department of agro-industrial complex and ecology of Government office of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Approved by the Order of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic of September 4, 2015 No. 618
Food security of the Kyrgyz Republic is the integral component of homeland and economic safety of the country in general as questions of food security are closely connected with general process of social and economic development of the country.
Now the Kyrgyz Republic has no sufficient level of self-reliance main types of food that leads to the high level of importozavisimost. In 2014 from 9 names of products of food security complete self-reliance due to internal production is reached only by three traditional types of food: potatoes - on % 149,0; vegetables and fruit - on 140,6 of % and milk and dairy products - on 110,6.
This Program of food security and power supply for 2015-2017 (further - the Program) is one of the first sectoral program documents developed within realization of the National sustainability strategy of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2013-2017 approved by the Presidential decree of the Kyrgyz Republic of January 21, 2013 No. 11, and the Program and the Plan of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic for transition to sustainable development till 2017.
Questions of food security and power supply are inseparably linked with political policy of the country on sustainable development. Transition to sustainable development in general suggests to consider economic growth through prism of human values and rational use of natural resources.
The purpose of development of the Program are: withdrawal from traditional management tools questions of ensuring food security and power supply in the country; expansion of the target reference points of ensuring food security directed to improvement of quality of power supply and improvement of health of the population of the country; aspiration to harmonization of questions of ensuring food security and power supply with the concept of food security which is widely used in world practice at the heart of which four components are pledged: food availability; availability; use and stability.
Proceeding from interests of the country, specifics of development of the agrarian sector, high degree of dependence of condition of food security in the country from the foreign markets, and also considering the conceptual approaches used in world practice, the Program is based on four target reference points:
1. Ensuring availability of food in the country.
2. Ensuring physical and economic availability of food.
3. Quality assurance, variety and caloric content of power supply.
4. Ensuring control and supervision of safety of power supply.
1. Availability of food means physical presence of safe and sufficient food in the quantitative and high-quality relation on any timepoint.
Proceeding from this determination, the analysis and questions of ensuring availability of food in the country are reflected in this Section through combination of components: own production; food inventories; export and import; food aid.
At the same time questions of internal production are reflected in interrelation with assessment of condition of natural resources (the earth, pastures, availability to irrigation water). The solution of task of replenishment action is coordinated to management of public finances on these purposes.
Foreign trade policy regarding food is oriented to diversification of export and stability of supply of flour and grain.
2. The baking plate is meant by availability that all households have enough means for receipt of proper food and ensuring good nutrition. Availability depends on the level of resources at the level of household (availability of finance, work and knowledge), and also on food prices.
In this Section the state-of-the-art review, perspective and questions on improvement of access to food are focused on such directions of state regulation as macroeconomic policy, anti-monopoly regulation, policy of social protection of the population.
Considering that access to food is directly connected with the level of the income of households, from this point of view the country labor market is analyzed. Besides, such factors as access to food, climate change and depletion of natural resources were considered.
3. Questions of variety, healthy food allowance and caloric content as their relevance more and more increases are reflected in this Program. The state-of-the-art review and priorities in this direction are oriented to balance of food allowance and its variety.
4. The program covers questions of safety of food, from their production before direct consumption. The analysis of condition of the state supervision of safety of import deliveries of food is separately this. At the same time the special part is assigned to the analysis of ensuring availability to information. The condition of infrastructure of laboratories, system of certification and preparation of technical regulations on food are analyzed.
Analysis and assessment of the current situation
According to the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "About food security of the Kyrgyz Republic" achievement of food security is provided with development of agro-industrial complex of the Kyrgyz Republic.
National production of food depends on condition of key natural resources, level and the organization of production process.
In general climatic conditions of the Kyrgyz Republic practically in all regions allow to carry farm-production to risk type of activity, with periodically drought years or early frosts. Application of effective methods of protection of soil, creation of large-scale greenhouse facilities restrains the high cost of the modern equipment, and also growth of the tax load in case of increase in production.
According to forecasts of climate change in the Kyrgyz Republic it is supposed that owing to temperature increase in the beginning (till 2050) there will be increase in water content of the rivers or the return process - decrease in water content will begin.
The Kyrgyz Republic has considerable inventories of water resources. The natural total mean annual annual flow of the rivers constitutes km 47,2 3, including during the vegetative period - 35 km3 (74%). Uneven distribution of water resources on seasons of year and on the territories, changeable hydrographic characteristics of the rivers is created by natural obstacles for effective use of water resources.
At the same time need of development and maintenance of functioning of irrigational system faces insufficiency of financing. As a result now irrigational systems cannot in necessary amount provide with irrigation water irrigated lands, first of all during the vegetative period. It creates significant risks for production, especially in periodically repeating drought years.
The general size of arable lands constitutes 1201, one thousand hectares, from them 798,9 of one thousand hectares - irrigated. In spite of the fact that the state annually allocates funds for carrying out rehabilitation works, measures for preserving and recovery of fertility of lands, for prevention of degradation of soils do not allow to improve situation. Annually for various reasons for farm-production it is not used within 100-110 thousand hectares of ploughland. Acreage, subject water and wind erosion, constitutes about 5 million hectares, or 45,7 of % of total area of agricultural holdings. Total area of native ranges of the Kyrgyz Republic constitutes 9,1 of one million hectares. At the same time in different degree 49% of pastures are degraded in general.
Despite the taken measures of prohibitive nature, the continuing transformation of arable lands reduces total area of the ploughland which is the main resource for agriculture. For the period 2005-2012 arable land was reduced on 37,9 of one thousand hectares, including the irrigated ploughland - on 16,5 of one thousand hectares. Security with ploughland on one person (resident population) reached from 0,25 of hectare (2003) 0,22 of the hectare (2012) irrigated - from 0,16 of hectare to 0,14 of hectare. The Kyrgyz Republic is among the countries with low indicators of security of ploughland on one person.
Factors of ensuring food security are amounts and stability of development of national production of food. The significant effect on amounts and stability of production render efficiency of agricultural industry, the expected product demand and level of support by the state of farm-production.
According to the order of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic "About approval of the Regulations on monitoring and indicators of food security of the Kyrgyz Republic" of March 9, 2009 No. 138 to number of basic products of crop production for assessment of level of food security carries 6 types of products: bread and bakery products; potatoes; fruit and berries; vegetables and melon; sugar; vegetable oil.
Gross release of crop production in 2014 constituted 98354, 4 million som, or 50,6 of % of all farm-production. In the Kyrgyz Republic during 2003-2012 on average in year it was made: wheat (in weight after completion) - 846,8 of one thousand tons, sugar beet - 286,5 of one thousand tons, oil-bearing crops - 72,9 of one thousand tons, potatoes - 1320,0 of one thousand tons, vegetables - 786,2 of one thousand tons, melon cultures - 124,0 of one thousand tons, fruits and berries - 184,8 of one thousand tons.
Rather steadily from year to year on amount potatoes and vegetables are made (annual variations from annual average production volume constitute up to 15%). Production volumes of wheat, fruits and berries, oil-bearing crops, melon cultures are less stable (annual variations from annual average production volume constitute up to 50%). Production volumes of sugar beet are most unstable (annual variations from annual average production volume constituted more than 100%).
Productivity indicators in the Kyrgyz Republic of basic products of crop production during 2003-2012 on average in year were the following: wheat (in weight after completion) - 21,7 of c/hectare, sugar beet - 190, c/hectare, oil-bearing crops - 10,5 of c/hectare, potatoes - 156,4 of c/hectare, vegetables - 178, c/hectare, melon cultures - 201,2 of c/hectare, fruits and berries - c/hectare 42,8. Indicators of productivity are low, especially on such important products as wheat and sugar beet. The maximum productivity of wheat in the world makes up to 98 c/hectare, in the Kyrgyz Republic - 26,3 of c/hectare, sugar beet: the maximum productivity in the world - to c/hectare 927,5, in the Kyrgyz Republic - c/hectare 190,8.
The stablest productivity is reached in production of oil-bearing crops, potatoes, vegetables, melon cultures and fruits and berries (annual variations from annual average productivity constitute less than 10%). Productivity of wheat and sugar beet has considerable fluctuations - annual variations from annual average productivity constitute respectively up to 25% and to 40%. At the same time in 2003-2012 productivity of wheat and sugar beet in dynamics fell, on the others the culture slightly grew.
3 types of products are carried to number of basic live stock products for assessment of level of food security: milk and dairy products; meat and meat products; eggs. Gross production of livestock production in 2014 constituted 47,5 of % of all farm-production. In the Kyrgyz Republic during 2003-2012 on average in year it was made: meat (in dressed weight) - 187,0 of one thousand tons, raw milk - 1271,5 of one thousand tons, eggs - 352,2 of one million pieces.
Meat production volumes (in dressed weight), raw milk is steady - annual variations from annual average production volume constitute less than 10%. Production of eggs is less steady - annual variations from annual average production volume constitute up to 25%.
Indicators of average productivity in 2003-2012 are steady on milking capacity of cows (variations from average for the period of indicator constitute less than 4%) and less steady - on egg production of laying hens (variation from average productivity to 18%). Dynamics of indicators in 2003-2012 negative.
Indicators of production volumes, productivity in crop production and productivity in livestock production confirms low stability of farm-production and poor development. Such way of development in separate years in case of adverse climatic conditions, negative external impact, reducing the resources involved in production can lead to sharp fall of production and, respectively, to decrease in level of food security.
Processing industry includes the companies for conversion of milk and dairy products, meat, vegetables, fruit, berries, flour-grinding industry which is oriented to the domestic and imported raw materials. Now less than a third of the milk made in the country, to 15% of the total production of vegetables, fruit, berries, less than 5% of meat total production is processed. Low amounts of conversion of products of crop production are one of the reasons of high losses of the received harvest which part quite often remains on fields or spoils in rooms, unadapted for storage of harvest, because of impossibility to implement in the market. In general low amounts of conversion reduce economic incentives for growth of farm-production.
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