of August 5, 2015 No. 558
About approval of regulating documents in the field of the treatment of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation
For the purpose of ensuring radiation safety of the population of the Kyrgyz Republic, according to the laws of the Kyrgyz Republic "About radiation safety of the population of the Kyrgyz Republic", "About tailings dams and mountain dumps", "About environmental protection", "The technical regulation "About Radiation Safety" and "General Technical Regulation on Providing Ecological Safety in the Kyrgyz Republic" decides the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic:
- Management on monitoring of the environment around storages of radioactive waste according to appendix 1;
- The control directive radioactive waste according to appendix 2;
- The qualification requirements imposed to activities for the treatment of radioactive waste according to appendix 3;
- The qualification requirements imposed to activities for transportation including transit, nuclear materials, radioactive materials, radio isotope sources of ionizing radiation, radioactive waste, according to appendix 6;
- Requirements imposed to contents of the instruction on radiation safety for the organizations performing activities for the address with radio nuclide sources and radioactive materials, and also the devices generating ionizing radiation according to appendix 7;
- Requirements imposed to contents of the program for quality in the field of ensuring radiation safety for the organizations performing activities for the address with radio nuclide sources and radioactive materials, and also the devices generating ionizing radiation according to appendix 8.
First vice-Prime Minister, acting as Prime Minister of the Kyrgyz Republic
Approved by the Order of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic of August 5, 2015 No. 558
1. The present manual on monitoring of the environment around storages of radioactive waste (further - the Management) establishes necessary requirements:
- for ensuring the state control and observation of operators of radio ecological state of environment around storages of radioactive waste on planning stage, operation and closings;
- for ensuring systematic monitoring of the environment around storages of radioactive waste.
Management directionally on monitoring of radiological aspects, and also not radiological factors supplementing radiological assessment.
2. The purpose of the present manual is establishment of elements of management system concerning safe handling of radioactive waste for achievement of the basic principles of safety:
- principle of reasons;
- principle of regulation;
- principle of optimization.
The management corresponds to the principle of implementation of the process approach within system of the treatment of radioactive waste.
Monitoring is considered as part of radiation environment protection, personnel and the population in case of all types of the treatment of radioactive waste on planning stages, constructions, operation and closing.
3. The management intends for:
- the state bodies exercising regulation and supervision;
- the organizations performing designing and construction of facilities where will be formed, be stored, be processed and to be buried radioactive waste.
4. Requirements of the Management extend on:
- the organizations as a result of which activities radioactive waste are formed;
- the organizations performing collection, storage, transportation, conversion and burial of radioactive waste;
- tailings dams and mountain dumps of the former uranium and other former metallurgical industry where the waste containing natural radionuclides which concentration exceeds levels of release from the regulating control is stored.
5. Requirements of the Management do not extend to the irradiated nuclear fuel and to burial of liquid radioactive waste in the deep geological horizons (layers collectors).
6. Objects of state regulation and supervision of radiation safety are:
- compliance with law of the Kyrgyz Republic regarding ensuring radiation safety for the population, personnel and the environment;
- observance of the regulations and rules establishing requirements to ensuring radiation safety;
- observance of safety requirements for the treatment of radioactive waste;
- accomplishment of conditions of action of the permissions issued by regulating authority;
- physical condition of storages of radioactive waste and efficiency of barriers;
- ensuring necessary skill level of the workers performing management of safe operation, conducting engineering procedure and ensuring departmental (production) control of radiation safety;
- development and implementation of actions on protection of personnel and the population in case of radiation accidents on subjects of the address and storage of radioactive waste.
See Terms and determinations (6Kb In original language)
7. Depending on the regulation purposes monitoring is performed by the operator or the regulating authority or physical person or legal entity having the right to carrying out monitoring.
Operators are the main responsible persons for monitoring of the environment around storages of Russian joint stock company. The regulating authority carries out the limited (reduced) program of ecological and radiometric measurements for the purpose of quality check of the results reported by the operator.
When several different sources of pollution can exert impact on one area and national group, the ecological program of monitoring shall be executed so that to estimate cumulative radiological and not radiological impact from these sources. Monitoring is carried out together with regulating authority if the operator has difficulties in carrying out monitoring due to the lack of information about radionuclide composition of the materials belonging to other operators.
If there is potential for emergence of large-scale accident, the regulating authority shall guarantee that readiness measures to emergency situations correspond to danger and are checked. Such measures include capability to bystry and large-scale monitoring in extraordinary conditions, also mean monitoring of the environment, personnel and the population. Monitoring in emergency situations can be executed by regulating authority or the organization determined by regulating authority.
8. Technical regulation in the field of monitoring around objects of Russian joint stock company is performed with use of the following main methods:
a) initial reviews - monitoring of the environment and health of the population before decision making on implementation of the economic and other activity in the field of connected with the address with Russian joint stock company;
b) the program of monitoring and monitoring - monitoring of source of allocation of pollution, the environment and the population in the course of any activities connected with Russian joint stock company shall be performed according to the program approved by regulating authority;
c) institutional control - methods of management of Russian joint stock company of storages after their closing or release from under the regulating control. Control is exercised by regulating authority and includes complex of observations, such as radio environmental monitoring, preserving and the analysis of archive and monitoring of use of lands;
d) inspection surveys - the surveys which are subdivided into regular surveys, the disaggregated surveys and special target surveys, responsible for which depending on the operational status of storage can be the operator, the regulating authority, supervisory authority or other state bodies authorized by the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic.
9. Development of the program of monitoring and interpretation of results of monitoring need to be performed with use of the established criteria.
As the quantitative criterion determining the level of safe conditions in case of the address with Russian joint stock company the limit of dose and restriction of dose are used. Not exceeding of restriction of dose or limit of dose is the indicator of the fact that radiation safety is ensured.
Limits of regulations and restrictions of dose are set by regulatory legal acts of the Kyrgyz Republic.
For optimization of protection and safety in case of professional radiation and radiation of the population the regulating authority and the operator shall provide application of the corresponding limits of doses and restrictions for any specific sources within practical activities.
Criteria for determination of levels of safe conditions on other indicators concerning impact assessment on the population and the environment, for example, not radiological chemical factors are determined by the corresponding regulatory legal acts of the Kyrgyz Republic.
10. Monitoring of storages of Russian joint stock company and the environment around storages of the Russian joint stock company containing long-living radionuclides (for example, waste from production and conversion of uranium and thorium ores), will be justified in case the annual dose from this source is equal or exceeds 2 mzv that constitutes one tenth from intervention level (20 mzv).
11. If human invasion into Russian joint stock company storage locations (negligence, criminal, terrorism and so forth) leads to possible annual dose more than 20 mzv for those people who live around the site, then it is necessary to consider alternative options for export of waste, for example, such as disposal of waste by their burial is lower than the Earth's surface, or by extraction from them of radionuclides which lead to the highest dose.
12. If annual doses constitute 1-20 mzv, then reasonable efforts to stages of development of means and storages shall guarantee reduction of probability of human invasion or restriction of its effects by means of optimization of the project for object.
13. The dose received by the population shall be calculated based on results of monitoring of the environment with the natural background taken into account. To estimate doses only from processes according to the address from Russian joint stock company, minor radiometric levels (background) shall be subtracted from results of measurements.
14. In case of any address with Russian joint stock company it is necessary to take both radiological, and not radiological dangers to the environment into account. As chemical toxicity can cause impact, harmful to the environment, in case of concentration which are much lower, than it is necessary for the work of radiological effect, the operator during the planning and operation of the company shall minimize pollution from source, firm deposits and acid emissions and dumpings by means of careful accomplishment of designing, construction, operation and closing.
15. For multifactorial impact for the purpose of observance of the set dose limit in case of their joint impact (that, as a rule, takes place in the uranium industry), ratios shall be carried out:
EROA - equivalent equilibrium volume activity of radon - 222, Bq/m3;
- concentration of long-living alpha-active radionuclides of number of uranium-238 and thorium-232, of Bq/m3;
1200, 0, 8 and 17 - the dose restrictions set for personnel;
Р - external gamma radiation (mkgr / h).
The water dumped or which is flowing down from mining objects shall conform to the following requirements in case of the famous radiochemical structures:
- specific activity of i-go of radionuclide in water, Bq/kg;
- appropriate level of intervention for i-go of radionuclide, Bq/kg.
16. For providing limit of dose in 1 mzv / year for the population from storages of Russian joint stock company and installations settlement dose and risk which can arise in the future as a result of the possible natural processes affecting storage shall not exceed the following limits:
- 0,3 mzv / year for the expected dose (does not contradict ICRP and IAEA);
- 1,0x10-5 for annual risk of stochastic effects (probability of emergence of fatal cancer or serious heritable effects).
17. Average on the Kyrgyz Republic value of capacity of equivalent dose of gamma radiation from natural background is the μSv/hour size 0,255.
18. The monitoring of source of pollution, the environment and health of the population which is carried out by regulating authority is performed within the state control of compliance of storages of Russian joint stock company and their infrastructure to requirements of ecological and radiation safety.
19. For each specific object the main responsible person for carrying out monitoring is the operator.
20. For ensuring systematic state monitoring state body of control and supervision:
- develops the plan of confirmatory monitoring and inspection survey (quality check of results of the monitoring executed by the operator and survey on site);
- develops the plan of monitoring in the territories where there is no operator;
- develops the plan of monitoring in emergency situations;
- approves the plan with other state bodies and the organizations which can be involved in monitoring and inspection (state bodies in the field of ecological and technical supervision, health care, emergency situations, geology, etc.);
- approves the plan of monitoring with regulating authorities of the cross-border countries if it is required (for example, for monitoring of water and air in border zone of each state);
- provide carrying out monitoring.
21. For ensuring lack of negative impact of storage of Russian joint stock company and its infrastructure on the environment and human body the regulating authority shall check that:
- the operator has specialists for carrying out production monitoring and means for its providing;
- monitoring specialists have the equipment and materials corresponding to tasks of monitoring and have all documents, necessary for the reporting;
- the equipment or barriers through which there can be leakages are in satisfactory condition that leakages are absent and that the equipment for liquidation of leakages is located nearby and is in satisfactory condition;
- the operator has equipment and materials for minimization of soil erosion in locations of installations and storages;
- the operator timely carries out all actions ordered him by regulating authority;
- borders of the water protection zones and the nature protected objects are observed by the operator;
- the operator undertakes measures for minimization of emissions and dumpings of radionuclides and other pollutants to the environment;
- in case of incident by the operator all necessary measures were taken for liquidation of its effects and the adjusting actions are executed;
- at the operator permission to implementation of impact to the environment is not delayed (emissions and dumpings, transportation and so forth);
- the operator performs all works on monitoring according to the program of monitoring;
- the operator by results of monitoring performs the analysis of situation and assessment of the doses received by personnel and the population;
- feedback and so forth functions.
For control of results of the monitoring which is carried out by the operator, the regulating authority performs checking of results of own monitoring with results of production monitoring both according to plan, and not according to plan if in it there is need.
After receipt of results of monitoring the main objective of regulating authority to estimate compliance of results of monitoring to criteria of safety. Documentation following the results of monitoring and assessment of conformity to safety requirements includes:
1) registration of results of check;
2) taking measures to results of check.
22. Involvement of the organization or the organizations having the right to perform works on monitoring of storages of Russian joint stock company.
1) If the regulating authority for any reasons (lack of devices, repair of devices, absence of the qualified specialist, etc.) has no sufficient technical and the functionality necessary for carrying out confirmatory monitoring and assessment of its results, then it can use services of consultants. Services in provision of consultations and carrying out tool measurements can render the local or foreign organizations having the right to it in compliance with the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic.
The government of the Kyrgyz Republic or regulating authority can delegate the certain obligations relating to monitoring of the environment to other organizations (laboratories, scientific or educational institutions, etc.) having the right to perform such works, for example:
- overview, testing and calibration of measuring instruments and equipment;
- overview of the program of quality check;
- development of the confirmatory program and regular work in such programs of monitoring of the environment or source of allocation of pollution to check quality of the results reported by the operator;
- confirmatory assessment of doses to the public members to guarantee that doses are below the limits set in licenses;
- carrying out the program of monitoring of the environment to estimate cumulative radio ecological impact from several different objects when they exert impact on the same area and national group;
- emergency response.
The organizations involved in monitoring can also be responsible for other areas concerning monitoring such as:
- collection and data storage, provided by operators, state bodies or the international organizations;
- monitoring of the environment in national or regional scale;
- establishment of standards.
2) Use of services of consultants or results of the work performed by the organization involved in monitoring does not exempt regulating authority from responsibility conferred on it, first of all, in case of decision making and issue of recommendations.
3) the Regulating authority shall have potential to estimate the received help from consultants. Before use of services of consultants and in case of delegation of the obligations of the organization involved in monitoring, the regulating authority shall check availability of the corresponding analytical methods, the equipment and system of quality check, and also competence of qualified personnel in these organizations and departments.
The regulating authority develops criteria for the choice of consultants and lists of skilled and certified consultants, national experts, the organizations and experts from the international organizations.
4) the Regulating authority establishes requirements for control and management of works of the organization involved in monitoring. Between regulating authority and the supplier of consultations or services the contract is signed. The regulating authority shall remain independent of the operator and from the organizations involved in monitoring and in designing of storages of Russian joint stock company.
5) Financing of services of consultants can be performed at the expense of different sources, according to the legislation of the Kyrgyz Republic.
23. The operator fulfills the regulating and technical requirements on ensuring systematic monitoring around storages of Russian joint stock company for the purpose of:
- ensuring forecasting of impact for the environment;
- providing with data for assessment of dose loads of personnel and the population;
- ensuring detection of any changes or discrepancies connected with management of Russian joint stock company;
- ensuring adequate protection of personnel, population and reduction of adverse environmental impacts;
- distribution of positive experience of the address with Russian joint stock company;
- providing with information the regulating and supervising bodies.
24. Operators shall guarantee that:
- monitoring and measurements of parameters will be executed for check of compliance of state of environment to normative requirements and criteria;
- for monitoring the suitable equipment for which all procedures of its check are performed is used (verifications, uncertainty estimates, internal calibrations);
- the equipment contains properly, is tested and is calibrated with ensuring traceability of measurements to the national and international SI systems;
- reports with results of monitoring are drawn up according to the established requirements and are represented to regulating authority.
25. Operators shall:
1) to develop and implement programs of monitoring for assessment of impact of storages of Russian joint stock company on health of the population and the environment. Programs shall include monitoring:
- external radiation from objects;
- releases of pollution from objects (emissions and dumpings);
- environment radioactivity;
- other parameters necessary for impact assessment on human body;
2) to draw up the corresponding reports with results of monitoring and estimates of dose on human body;
3) to perform transfer of results or opening of access to results of monitoring and to the reports containing the analysis of results and assessment of doses, to regulating authority through certain intervals of time;
4) to perform immediate informing authorized state body on any excesses of contents of substances over the set limits;
5) to perform immediate informing authorized state body on any essential increase in dose or concentration of radionuclides in the environment which could be attributed to the authorized practice;
6) to develop the plan of emergency response and to keep capability to execute monitoring in emergency situation, in case of unexpected increases in radiation levels or concentration of radionuclides in the environment because of accidents or other unusual events attributed to object or means;
7) to perform check of adequacy of the assumptions made for impact assessment on the population and the environment;
8) to inform through media or opening of access in case of request to all materials concerning programs of monitoring of sources of allocation of pollution from object, monitoring of the environment and estimates of impact of doses on the population.
26. The period after closing and rehabilitation of storages of Russian joint stock company.
1) Persons or the organizations responsible for monitoring during the period after closing and rehabilitation of object, shall install the appropriate program of monitoring during the term which requires regulating authority or other state body. Such program shall include any necessary conditions for carrying out monitoring and check in the long-term plan of efficiency of complete corrective actions.
2) For those areas where is available it is long the stored radioactive material and in the territory of which it is authorized to build apartment houses and to resume social and economic actions, the regulating authority shall be sure that measures of storage of Russian joint stock company are observed and monitoring will be continued, including:
- development of operational reference levels for the protection and safety compatible to everyday life;
- development of infrastructure for maintenance of the continuing self-improvement of protective actions in the affected areas.
3) Conditions on the territories prevailing after completion of corrective actions will be considered as the conditions corresponding to natural background of radiation if the regulating authority or other relevant state body recognizes this territory radiation safe.
27. If the operator for any reasons (lack of devices, repair of devices, absence of the qualified specialist, etc.) has no sufficient technical and the functionality necessary for accomplishment of obligations on carrying out monitoring, then he shall use services of consultants and the organizations on contractual basis. Also the state departments, universities, the private organizations, and also the competent foreign organizations capable to render such services can provide services.
28. All types of monitoring are carried out at the expense of the organization on which balance there was storage of Russian joint stock company before closing.
29. One of aspects of radiation control is quality and quantitative standard of radioactive environmental pollution both at planning stage, and at all operational phases, including closing. Proceeding from it, in the area of tasks of laboratory join:
- quality and quantitative standard of radioactive pollution of atmospheric air, soils, vegetation, underground waters and reservoirs;
- identification of sources of radioactive environmental pollution;
- control over radiation factors on workplaces and in the environment;
- control of levels of radiation of personnel and population;
- quality and quantitative standard of chemical pollution of atmospheric air, soils, vegetation, underground waters and reservoirs;
- demonstration of environment protection by means of assessment of impacts on the environment.
30. Depending on objective the regulating authority or the operator can use services as own laboratories, and services of other laboratories.
If one laboratory has no all necessary list of tool testing in the sphere of activity, use of services of several laboratories is allowed in total to obtain all range of the data necessary for assessment of radio ecological state of environment in zone of arrangement of object of storage of Russian joint stock company. In this case the organization or physical person as responsible for collection and data processing, received from laboratories shall be determined.
31. The compulsory provision for laboratory is observance of requirements of quality management system by it. Compliance to quality of laboratory guarantees legal provability of the received analysis results and tool measurements.
32. For mining industry and the companies for conversion of minerals monitoring and programs of observation is part of complete management process. For future planning and development of the corresponding control and programs of observation it is necessary to determine the existing status of the site where the storage of Russian joint stock company and its infrastructure will be located. Ideally the overview of state of environment shall be performed prior to the beginning of construction and operation of the company of mining and processing industry.
At stage of the feasibility study and project initial reviews join the operator in Sections on environmental impact assessment (EIA) which are reported further for state examination to the relevant regulating authorities.
For for a long time the existing installations and storages of Russian joint stock company prestarting data on state of environment are often unavailable. In that case it is necessary to obtain information from minor sites (unaffected last or current transactions according to the address from Russian joint stock company); information shall include data on the existing nature and extent of its pollution, the overview of characteristics. Important condition is that the area used for establishment of minor conditions shall be similar according to the characteristics to the site where there is address to Russian joint stock company.
33. The initial overview includes measurements of quality of atmospheric air, surface and underground water, superficial soils, vegetation and general radiation levels.
In case of the choice of parameters which will be included in the overview it is necessary to consider the certain factors specific to the site chosen for construction:
- location of the site (description of the site, geography);
- geological and hydrogeological conditions;
- population distribution of flora and fauna;
- impacts on the environment outside the boundaries of the site (influence from other objects - radiological and not radiological);
- social conditions (proximity to settlements, level of living, state of health, diet and so forth).
Information collection to construction, during operation and after closing of the site is necessary for comparison.
34. The overview of quality of atmospheric air shall include high-quality and quantitative determination of the gases and dust containing radioactive and chemical elements. Sampling points shall be located directly on the chosen site and behind site borders (near the site and on distance from the site).
35. The overview of quality of water shall include the characteristic of soil and surface waters (the hydrological modes, speed and amount of flow), high-quality and quantitative determination of composition of water. The quantity of sampling points, including the observation wells, shall be sufficient to determine quality of water and the modes of flow of soil and surface waters on the site. Also points for carrying out measurements and sampling outside the site, i.e. above and below borders of the chosen site shall be determined.
36. The overview of level of gamma radiation and quality of the superficial soil on the site and in its vicinities shall be received through route shooting on certain grid by means of portable sensitive radiometers dosimeters. Aero gamma survey for creation of contour maps can be alternatively carried out.
Selection of test of the soil is usually made at depth of 15 cm. Along with selection of test in the same point measurement of level of gamma radiation is performed. Measurement of capacity of dose of radiation is performed at two levels: at distance of 10 cm and 1 m over the Earth's surface. Also at the same time in point of selection of test of the soil selection of test of vegetation becomes. Test is selected from the platform of 1x1 m in size, for the analysis on content of radionuclides and metals land part of plant undertakes.
The choice of the size of step between crossings of grid of implementation depending on site conditions. Four cross perpendicular profiles are often established and, as a rule, one of them shall be laid in the direction of the prevailing wind. The size of step can constitute from 50 to several tens meters on platforms where installations, and more (to 5 km) in borders of the site and out of it will be placed. The smaller size of grid (10-30 m) can be necessary on platforms where it is going to store ores and waste where workshops, rudoperevozny roads and the equipment for transportation of waste will be placed. Smaller size of grid (1-5 m) can be chosen if it is necessary to provide the necessary degree of confidence for potential radiation estimates of dose.
37. In case of assessment of ore body it is necessary to research balance for isotopes of uranium and thorium and it is necessary to determine presence of other essential elements, such as vanadium, arsenic and nickel, carbonates and sulfides.
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