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The document ceased to be valid since  August 27, 2021 according to the Order of the Acting Minister of ecology, geology and natural resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan of August 13, 2021 No. 327

ORDER OF THE MINISTER OF ENERGY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

of March 16, 2015 No. 202

About approval of criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories

(as amended on 07-12-2017)

According to the subitem 30) of article 17 of the Ecological code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of January 9, 2007, I ORDER:

1. Approve the enclosed criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories.

2. To provide to department of environmental monitoring and information of the Department of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the procedure for the Republic of Kazakhstan established by the legislation:

1) state registration of this order in the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan;

2) the direction on official publication of the copy of this order within ten calendar days after its state registration in the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan in periodic printing editions and information system of law of Ad_let;

3) placement of this order on official Internet resource of the Department of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan and on the intranet portal of state bodies;

4) within ten working days after state registration of this order in the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan submission to Department of legal service of the Department of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan of data on execution of the actions provided by subitems 2) and 3) of this Item.

3. To impose control of execution of this order on the supervising vice-Minister of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

4. This order becomes effective after ten calendar days after its first official publication.

Minister of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan

B. School student

Approved by the Order of the Minister of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan of March 16, 2015 No. 202

Criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories

1. General provisions

1. Criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories (further - Criteria) are developed according to subitems 30) of article 17 of the Ecological code of the Republic of Kazakhstan of January 9, 2007.

2. Criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories - set of the indicators characterizing deterioration in the state of health of the population and the environment.

3. Criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories are used in case of determination of zones of emergency ecological situation or ecological disaster.

4. Determination of zone of emergency ecological situation or zone of ecological catastrophe is performed on one or several main and additional indicators reflecting higher degree of unsuccessful ecological situation.

5. Criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories can be used in other purposes of determination of the state of health of the population and the environment.

6. The concepts and terms applied in these criteria for evaluation of ecological situation of the territories are used in the values determined in the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

2. Air pollution of the selitebny territories

7. The negative impact of pollution of the air basin occurs in two main ways which are considered in case of inspections of zones of possible ecological disaster or emergency ecological situation:

as a result of direct contact with the contaminated air;

as a result of loss of pollutants from the atmosphere and secondary pollution of water and the soil.

8. The space scale of impact fluctuates depending on characteristics of sources of pollution and objects of impact.

9. Concentration of pollutants from separate local sources in result of processes of dispersion and loss of impurity decreases with distance. The maximum concentration are noted at distance about 20 heights of pipe from source. Concentration hazardous to health of the person from such sources are observed on the area no more than 10-100 sq.km. For coniferous forests which sensitivity to pollution of the atmosphere is several times higher, than at the person the area of defeat of vegetation can reach 100-1000 sq.km.

10. In large industrial agglomerations imposing of pollution from separate sources results total area of negative impact can be close to the area of the agglomeration or exceed it.

11. Extent of pollution of atmospheric air is established on frequency rate of exceeding of maximum-permissible concentration (further - maximum allowable concentration) taking into account class of danger, summation of biological effect of air pollutions and frequency of excesses of maximum allowable concentration.

12. For assessment of extent of air pollution the actual most one-time and average daily concentration over the past few years, but at least for 2 years are used.

13. Results of measurements are processed separately on each observation post, substance and year separately. On each substance are performed at least 200 observations (tests):

1) assessment of extent of pollution of atmospheric air on average daily concentration:

for assessment of extent of pollution the average daily tests received by continuous aspiration within 24 hours or intermittent aspiration, at least 4 times a day, through equal interval of time are used. All concentration from the selected average daily tests are analyzed.

For each average daily concentration frequency rate of exceeding is calculated "To". Calculated by indicator "To" row, for the analyzed period (year), it is estimated in compliance by criteria for evaluation of extent of pollution of atmospheric air on average daily concentration according to appendix 1 to these Criteria.

In case of presence of combination of the substances having effect of summation the given average daily concentration (further - Sss пр) similar to formula is calculated (1.1). Assessment is conducted on Sss Prospekt.

Taking into account the specified criteria materials on all types of pollution of the atmosphere based on which the expert evaluation of reference of the territory to this or that zone becomes are considered;

2) assessment of pollution of atmospheric air on maximum and one-time (one-time) concentration.

For increase in reliability of assessment of results of measurements and exception of random variables the statistical processing of material allowing to receive taking into account variations of concentration that its value which in 95% of cases will be up to standard or below settlement concentration (With 95) is used.

Frequency rate of exceeding (K) is calculated by formula (1.1):

                                                     To = C95 / ПДКм.р. (1. 1)

where:

To - frequency rate of exceeding;

C95 - value in 95% of cases will be up to standard or below settlement concentration;

Pdkm.R. - maximum and one-time maximum-permissible concentration.

In case of presence at atmospheric air of the substances having effect of summation of biological effect the concentration given to one of the summing-up substances (C95 пр) on formula is calculated (1.2):                         

             C95 пр = C1 + C2*PDK1/PDK2 + C3*PDK1/PDK2 +... + SN*PDK1/PDK2                (1.2)

where:

With 1, C2 - concentration of the pollutants having effect of summation;

Maximum allowable concentration - maximum-permissible concentration;

S95pr - value of concentration in 95% at the level or below settlement concentration.

Assessment of extent of pollution of atmospheric air for combination of the summing-up substances is conducted on the given concentration. It is recommended to lead the amount of such substances to the substance having less favorable class of danger.

Notes:

Pollution of atmospheric air бенз (and) pyrene (further - BAP) has the prevailing value only in the territories of industrial enterprises for which BAP is one of the leading components of emission (the anode plants, the aluminum industry, the kokso-pekovy industry and others)

2. In the presence of excesses of pollution by the specified criteria, on the weighed substances, data on physical and chemical properties of substances, in compliance by assessment of extent of pollution of atmospheric air according to appendix 2 to these Criteria are at the same time represented;

3) assessment of annual average pollution of atmospheric air on complex indicator.

Annual average concentration of pollutants in atmospheric air are calculated or used data on state of pollution of air of the cities and industrial centers for several years, but at least two.

Extent of air pollution is calculated taking into account frequency rate of exceeding of annual average maximum allowable concentration of substances, their class of danger, admissible repeatability of concentration of the set level, amount of the substances which are at the same time present at air, and coefficient of their combined action.

The PDKG annual average values are determined by formula (1.3):

                                                            PDKG = and ПДКсс (1.3)

where:

PDKG - annual average maximum-permissible concentration;

ПДКсс - average daily maximum-permissible concentration.

Value of coefficients "and" for different substances are given in appendix 3 to these Criteria.

Extent of air pollution by substances of different classes of danger (Kzkl) is determined by "reduction" of their concentration, the normalized by maximum allowable concentration, to concentration of substances of 3rd class of danger according to formula (1.4):

                                                                   Kzkl = Kjn (1.4)

where:

n - isoefficiency coefficient;

j - danger class (n = 2,3 for j = 1; n = 1,3 for j = 2; n = 0,87 for j - 4). (In case of sizes, normalized on maximum allowable concentration of concentration above 2,5 for the 1st class, higher than 5 for the 2nd class, higher than 8 for 3rd class and higher than 11 for the 4th class, "reduction" to 3rd class is performed by multiplication of values of the normalized concentration on maximum allowable concentration respectively on 3,2; 1,6; 1 and 0,7).

If atmospheric air is contaminated by the substances belonging to the different classes of danger calculation of complex indicator of River is made.

Calculation of complex indicator P is carried out on formula (1.5):

                                                  Р = Sqrt (Sum (K^2j)) (1.5)

where:

Sqrt (Sum (K^2j)) - root square of the amount of squares of the normalized concentration on maximum allowable concentration given to those concentration of substances of 3rd class;

j - number of substance.

14. Assessment of total extent of pollution of atmospheric air on complex indicator for assessment of annual average pollution of atmospheric air on complex indicator P is carried out according to appendix 4 to these Criteria.

15. If in complex indicator any of substances will matter, exceeding indicator size for one substance, assessment of extent of pollution is performed also on this substance.

3. Assessment of the sanitary and epidemiologic situation connected with recreational and drinking water of centralized water supply

16. Decline in quality of drinking water hazardous to health of people, owing to intensive pollution of sources of water supply and sanitary and epidemiologic condition of water subjects to recreational appointment, is the most important factor of change of the habitat of the person and plays important role in case of determination of degree of ecological trouble of the territories.

17. Results of assessment of degree of sanitary and epidemiologic situation are carried out based on stable preserving negative values of the main indicators during rather long period (at least one year). At the same time, variations from regulations shall be observed by several criteria, except as specified pollution of water sources and drinking water by pathogenic microorganisms and causative agents of parasitic diseases, and also especially toxic (extremely dangerous) substances when results of assessment can be made based on one criterion. The indicators characterizing pollution of water sources and drinking water the substances carried to the third and fourth classes of danger and also physical and chemical properties and organoleptic characteristics of water belong to additional. Additional indicators are used for confirmation of extent of the intensive anthropogenous pollution of water sources determined by the main indicators according to appendix 5 to these Criteria.

4. Pollution of the soil of the inhabited places

18. Ecological assessment of radioactive pollution of soils of the selitebny territories is carried out on the main indicators: capacities of equivalent dose at the level of 1 meter from the surface of the soil (microsievert an hour - μSv/h) and extents of radioactive pollution on separate technogenic (to artificial radionuclides) to radioisotopes (kilobecquerel on square meter - kBq/m 2).

19. Chemical pollution of soils is estimated on total indicator of chemical pollution (Zc). The total indicator of chemical pollution (Zc) characterizes extent of chemical pollution of soils of the inspected territories of different classes of danger and is determined by formula (1.6):

                                                Zc = Kci +... + Kcn - (n - 1) (1.6)

where:

Zc - total indicator of chemical pollution;

n - number of the determined elements;

Kci - the coefficient of concentration of i-go of the contaminating component equal to substance i-go, private from division of mass fraction, in the contaminated and "background" soil for heavy metals.

20. For pollutants of not natural origin the coefficient of concentration is determined as private from division of mass fraction of pollutant and its maximum allowable concentration. Genotoxicity and indicators of biological pollution (number of pathogenic microorganisms, coli-index and content of eggs of the helminths) specified in indicators for assessment of sanitary and epidemiologic condition of the soil of the inhabited places according to appendix 6 to these Criteria belong to additional indicators of ecological condition of soils of the selitebny territories.

5. Indicators for assessment of radiation safety

21. The main criterion characterizing degree of radio ecological safety of the person living in the contaminated territory - annual average value of effective dose from technogenic sources of ionizing radiation. On doses from natural and medical radiation, and also dose owing to radiation accidents special restrictions are set.

Assessment of radiation impurity of the territory is performed according to appendix 27 to the Hygienic standard rates "Sanitary and epidemiologic requirements to ensuring radiation safety" approved by the order of the Minister of national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 27, 2015 No. 155 (registered in the Register of state registration of regulatory legal acts for No. 10671).

22. Unit of effective dose is the sievert (Stars.) International commission on radiation protection recommended as limit of dose of radiation of the population - the dose equal 1 мЗв / year (millisievert in year) (0,1 of rem/year).

The territories within which annual average values of effective dose of radiation of the person from technogenic radionuclides do not exceed 1 мЗв, (treat the territories with rather satisfactory ecological situation, with annual average value of effective dose of radiation from 1 to 5 мЗв - to emergency ecological situation and more than 5 мЗв - to ecological disaster.

6. Criteria of change of the environment

23. Criteria of change of the environment following indicators:

1) indicators for assessment of pollution of atmospheric air on the substances influencing land vegetation and water ecosystems, specified in appendix 7 to these Criteria.

The main indicators of pollution of atmospheric air characterizing impact on the environment (vegetation, soils, surface and underground water) are critical loadings and critical levels of pollutants. Understand the maximum values of losses as them or, respectively, concentration in atmospheric air of pollutants which do not lead to harmful effects on structures and functions of ecosystems in the long-term plan.

As criterion for allocation of zones of ecological catastrophe exceeding at 10-15 times of critical levels and loadings for different ingredients and depending on sensitivity of ecosystems can serve.

For assessment of condition of environments, the measured values of concentration of pollutants in atmospheric air or the measured values of intensity of losses of U should be compared to the relevant data of the table. For acid-forming substances the measured size U shall be corrected on value of share, not neutralized part of the amount of strong acids on ratio:

                                                                      L = DU,

where:

L - values of atmospheric loadings which are compared to critical loadings;

By D it is determined how

D = 1 - R                              in case of 0 <R <1

D = 0                                    in case of R> 1

where:

D - А/К - the relation of the amount of molar concentration of anions

Формула 1 к Приказу от 16.03.2015 №202

to the amount of molar concentration of cations

Формула 2 к Приказу от 16.03.2015 №202

2) Indicators for assessment of extent of chemical pollution of the surface water specified in appendix 8 to these Criteria.

As the main indicators of assessment of condition of surface water the toxic, priority pollutants including having cumulative properties to accumulate in bodies and fabrics of aquatic organisms are chosen

For cumulative assessment of dangerous levels of pollution of water objects in case of allocation of zones of emergency ecological situation and ecological disaster it is offered to use the formalized total indicator of chemical pollution of PHZ (10). Total indicator of chemical pollution of PHZ (10) it is especially important for the territories where pollution by chemicals is observed directly on several substances, each of which repeatedly exceeds admissible level (maximum allowable concentration).

Additional indicators include the commonly accepted physical and chemical and biological characteristics giving general idea about structure and quality of waters. These indicators are used for the additional characteristic of the processes happening in water objects. Additional characteristics include the indicators considering capability of pollutants to accumulate in ground deposits (KDA) and aquatic organisms (Km).

Parameters of the indicators offered for allocation of zones shall be observed in this territory constantly throughout rather long time with the minimum period at least 3 years. When using indexes of saprobity across Pantla and Bouck in Sladechek's modifications, indicator values of types can be different in different climatic zones. In case of application of biotic index of Vudivis it is considered, regional features are considered, and weight values of "taxonomical groups" can depend on condition of water objects in different regions.

In case of assessment of condition of water ecosystems indicators on fish fauna, especially are important for the unique, especially protected water objects and reservoirs of the first and highest fishery category. The indicators given in the table are considered taking into account regional features, category and the trophic status of reservoirs (water currents).

It is recommended to use any additional indicators which did not enter the obligatory list, but supplying the necessary information for more total characteristic of condition of water ecosystems. For example, as the generalized assessment of condition of communities of planktonic and ground animals use of such indicator as the relation of products of community (Pb) to total expenditure for exchange of all animals who are its part (Rb) is allowed. This indicator is determined as ratio between useful energy on leaving the system (community of animals) and the energy disseminated by animals in processes of exchange in the form of thermal;

3) indicators for assessment of condition of the water ecosystems specified in appendix 9 to these Criteria;

4) the indicators for assessment of depletion of water resources specified in appendix 10 to these Criteria.

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