of November 14, 2014 No. 944
About approval of the Strategy of development of education for 2014-2020 "Education-2020"
According to Item 4) Article 3 and the paragraph the second Item 2) article 25 of the Law on the Government No. 64-XII of May 31, 1990 (repeated publication: The official monitor of the Republic of Moldova, 2002, Art. No. 131-133, 1018), with subsequent changes and amendments, for the purpose of implementation of the National development strategy "Moldova-2020" approved by the Law No. 166 of July 11, 2012 (The official monitor of the Republic of Moldova, 2012, Art. No. 245-247, 791), and also for the purpose of consecutive upgrade of education system the Government DECIDES:
1. Approve the Strategy of development of education for 2014-2020 "Education-2020" (is applied).
2. To the ministries, other central administrative authorities responsible for implementation of the specified Strategy:
a) include in the strategic development programs, the industry strategy of expenses, annual working plans and other documents of strategic planning necessary actions for accomplishment of the purposes in area of development of strategy of education for 2014-2020 "Education-2020";
b) include in annual activities reports till January 25 of the year following for reporting, data on accomplishment of the Strategy of development of education "Education-2020" according to the established requirements.
3. The Ministry of Public Education will estimate strategy implementation of development of education for 2014-2020 "Education of 2020" and to represent to the Government till April 15 of the year following for reporting, the valuation report of Strategy in the middle and at the end of the realization period.
4. Recommend to bodies of local public administration to take measures for implementation of the Strategy of development of education for 2014-2020 "Education-2020".
5. Financing of the actions provided by the approved Strategy will be performed for the account and within the means approved on these purposes in budgets of local public authorities and from other sources, according to the current legislation.
6. To impose control over the implementation of this resolution on the Ministry of Public Education.
Approved by the Order of the Government of the Republic of Moldova of November 14, 2014 No. 944
Education represents national priority in the Republic of Moldova. It is major factor in transfer and creation of new cultural and universal values, in development of human capital, in forming of national consciousness and self-determination, in implementation of aspiration to the European integration and plays paramount role in creation of premises for sustainable human development and creation of the society founded on knowledge. Quality of education to a large extent determines quality of life and creates opportunities for the most complete application of capabilities of each citizen.
The Ministry of Public Education suggests to shift focus in the field of education towards quality of educational process and competences which young people receive in the course of education. Personal success depends on capability of the personality to adapt to changes and to study continuously, and the system of education shall provide the environment suitable for development of these capabilities. In the context of global changes and considerable demographic recession life-long education during all life becomes education system task.
The Ministry of Public Education expects development of high expectations of citizens concerning education system and their broad involvement in reforming process. In the Republic of Moldova education is located on one of the first places in the ratings determining the level of satisfaction of the population in relation to the main aspects of social and economic life. The share of those who call themselves by the satisfied and very satisfied services in the field of education exceeds 50% (Institute public the politician, the Barometer of public opinion, 2001-2012). The similar perception correlated to low results on the international and national tests, to low extent of employment of graduates and to weak communication between professional development and market requirements of work, and also high level of unofficial payments (Institute public the politician and the Center of social researches and marketing of "CBC-AXA", the Formal and informal payments made by parents at the high and higher school, 2013) specify lack of knowledge of the population concerning purpose of educational system. Control of life and economic competitiveness of the country depend on availability, quality and relevance of education.
The strategy of development of education for 2014-2020 (further – Strategy) is the main document of policy in the field of education. She establishes the medium-term purposes and tasks for the purpose of development of education and determines reference points and the priority directions of educational development in the Republic of Moldova. For the purpose of the integrated coordinating of process of strategic industry designing in the field of education of provision of Strategy were correlated to documents relevant the politician, to the reforms started in education system with other reforms which are operational continuation of actions which are provided by the Strategy of national development Moldova-2020.
Strategy is organized on the basis of three cores: access, relevance, quality. The educational system is designed to provide use of potential of each personality and to bring up competitive labor power. In this plan Strategy is oriented to results and considers problems and decisions as at the education level, and the subjects which are crossed with it. Many considered problems are interconnected and do not belong only to one of Strategy cores, they are included in one Chapter for the purpose of ensuring consecutive approach.
Processes of implementation of Strategy will be organized as on the basis of documents the politician, and changes of legislative procedure. The strategic directions and specific tasks established in Strategy will be included in programs of strategic development of the central public authorities, and their implementation will be performed through documents of strategic planning of the ministries, in particular the budgetary forecast for the medium-term period (BPSP), the annual budget and the action plan. The legal framework for the strategic directions and the specific purposes established in Strategy are provided with the draft of the Code about education approved with the Strategy provision. Financing of process of implementation of Strategy will be made from the government budget, from local budgets, by attraction of grants, funds, sponsoring and from other legal sources, the emphasis will be placed on the financing methods based on programs and achievements.
This Strategy diagnoses present condition of education system in Moldova, determines its main problems and chooses and proposes the most suitable solutions for their overcoming the education system became major factor of economic and social progress of the country.
Main tasks of Strategy
This Strategy sets the following tasks:
ensuring strong development of educational system for the purpose of forming of the complete, active, social and creative person – the main factors of human development and social and economic progress of the country;
expansion of access to quality education for all children and youth by providing the friendly and protective circle at school, and also involvement of pupils, students and parents for consultations in decision making;
determination of priority strategies of development of education in the Republic of Moldova and mechanisms of their development;
increase of efficiency of expenditure of the public means invested into education the released resources were redirected on education improvement of quality, including by investments into teaching personnel, educational process and infrastructure of educational institutions;
increase in efficiency of educational system, expansion and variability of educational services by development of opportunities which are given by information and communication technologies;
expansion and variety of education system of adults during all life from the point of view of common development and continuous professional training, according to the needs of the personality correlated to social and economic requirements;
structural and high-quality reduction of national education in compliance with the European education.
Principles of Strategy
Obligation. The carried-out analysis, the proposed solutions and strategic vision concern each process and each component of education system operationalization of Strategy led to full implementation of all objectives
Reconsideration. Part of problems of education system of the Republic of Moldova remains more than 20 years, despite the consecutive attempts of improvement made throughout this period. Strategy offers creation of the new institutional structure which is based on modern approaches and the principles which shall bring including, to change of mentality all involved in educational process: teachers, pupils, students, parents, representatives of the economic sector, etc.
Efficiency. The processes happening in education system, and noted problems are considered without fail and from the point of view of investment soundness of public money, for the purpose of receipt of the greatest possible efficiency of funds, one of tasks of Strategy is achievement of maximum efficiency of the funds allocated to education.
Piloting and reproduction. Many proposed solutions were tested, and untried will pass through experiment. As a result only decisions which proved will be selected or will prove the viability in private conditions of the Republic of Moldova.
Adaptation. The proposed solutions which are successfully applied and in other countries, were offered for adaptation to cultural, economic and social realities of the Republic of Moldova they brought the most complete return in increase of relevance and quality of educational processes.
Institutional viability. The offered institutional structure was in details analyzed from the point of view of functionality the sphere of responsibility for decisions at each level of education system, as well as the relations of different types of organizations based on respect for the principle of amendment and balance in decision making would be accurately established and differentiated.
The difficult transition period in economy and demographic recession affects also situation in education system. In spite of the fact that the share of investments into education raises, competitiveness of economy remains low
The Republic of Moldova passed through difficult transition period. The last two decades were celebrated by decline of economy, demographic recession, emigration and, since recent time, effects of financial crisis of 2008-2009. Though since the beginning of 2000 the economy increased more than twice, GDP per capita in relation to parity of consumer capability continues to remain low, in 2012 equaling to 3 424 US dollars, the lowest indicator in Southeast Europe (The World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.PP.CD.). Favorable to economic growth the period from 2000 to 2008 was caused by rather money transfers, than capital investments, export or direct foreign investments (The World Bank, the Economic memorandum over the country, Moldova after world crisis: support of competitiveness and general growth, April 2011). Money transfers became supporting pillar on which and nowadays the economy of the Republic of Moldova is based, and they continue to remain the important characteristic of economic development.
Demographic recession conducts to permanent population decrease, involved in educational process. According to data of National bureau of statistics, tendency of demographic processes note since the beginning of the 90th years reduction of the population of the country which number for the last decade decreased on 60000 people, continuing steady negative rate of natural surplus. Demographic recession is predetermined by decrease in birth rate, the high mortality rate, massive emigration of youth. Moreover, the population forecasts till 2050 based on different scenarios confirm continuity of demographic recession in the next decades (the drawing 1). Thus, if birth rate and death rate keep the values till 2050, equal to the values registered in 2010 (birth rate – 11, the babies born live on 1000 inhabitants and death rate – 12,3 of the dead on 1000 inhabitants), then population of the country can decrease by 900000 inhabitants and at the end of forecast period will make 2644,6 of thousand inhabitants. In conditions when the share of the younger generation decreases, and the share of the elderly population increases, process of reducing the school population is shown more and more accurately.
Figure 1. Dynamics of population till 2050
Source: Academy of Sciences of Moldova, based on data NBS
Investments into education do not provide competitiveness of national economy. For 2005-2012 the share of public expenses for education in GDP increased with % 7,9 up to % 8,4. Also the share of public expenses on the pupil/student in comparison with GDP per capita, with % 34,9 in 2005 grew to % 45,2 in 2012. Part of these expenses is expenses of social appointment and cannot be considered as investments into education. In 2012 about 13,5 of % of means from the budget of education there were raskhodovana on food, grants and content of hostels (CASE Moldova, in case of financial support of UNICEF, the Report on the comprehensive analysis of the budgeted expenses connected with social protection in education system of the Republic of Moldova during 2008-2010 and the practicians of financing of the costs connected with education, 2012) existing in the region. Nevertheless, though expenses for education steadily increased, investments could not cover in recent years the increasing needs of industry which sets the task to prepare competitive labor power for world economy. In present conditions integrated and innovative approach to politicians in the field of education is required.
Demographic recession leads to considerable decrease in population, covered by educational process, and creates problems of overestimate of the sizes of school network. At the same time there is problem of access to certain steps of education.
Owing to the demographic recession caused by negative population growth and outflow abroad the number of school students and students considerably decreased. So, the number of constantly living population aged up to 30 years equaled 1558,9 thousand people at the beginning of 2013, i.e. is 7,1% less in comparison with 2007 and is 12,5% less in comparison with 2003. In age group 3-23 years were celebrated reduction by % 17,3 in comparison with 2007 and on % 24,5, in comparison with 2003, and the number of persons covered by educational process (3-23 years) decreased by % 14,0 in comparison with 2007 and by % 26,5 in comparison with 2003 (the drawing 2) (NBS, the Population and demographic processes, 2013)
Figure 2. Development of the resident population aged up to 30 years involved in educational process, 2003-2013.
Source: National bureau of statistics
Negative demographic tendencies create problems of overestimate of the sizes of network of educational institutions, especially general education that leads to inefficient use of resources and does not allow to invest in upgrade and equipping of schools. While the school population decreased half in comparison with 1990, and the number of schools decreased only by % 14,6, the problem of access to education determined by different factors at different steps of training remains.
Access for children of early age to education increases in steady rhythm, however the existing network of kindergartens covers demand only partially. The difference between share of the children attending kindergartens in rural and in the city area remains.
The number of preschool institutions grows after drama recession in case of crisis of the 90th years. At the beginning of 2013 there were 1418 preschool institutions, i.e. is 6,3% more in comparison with 2007. This growth led to increase in number of the children visiting these organizations to one thousand 141,1 in 2012, is 17,5% more in comparison with 2007. Thus, growth of gross share of scope is noted by preschool education which constituted % 82,1 in 2012, in comparison with % 72,6 in 2007. The difference between scope share in the city and rural zone remains; in 2012 it constitutes 29,1 of items in 2012 in comparison with 25,2 of items in 2007 (Educatia in Republica Moldova, statistical release, 2012/2013) (the table 1).
Gross share of scope preschool education, in %
General gross share
Gross share in the city area
Gross share in the rural zone
* The gross share over 100% is explained by scope of children who are more than 7 years old or who moved not from the urban environment of dwelling).
Source: National bureau of statistics
The government, based on the importance of early education for further development of children, reviewed the Millennium development goals, having established the following tasks of preschool education: increase in share of scope in preschool educational programs for children of 3-6 years from 41.3% in 2002 to 78% in 2015, and for children 5-6 (7) years – with % 66,5 in 2002 to 98% in 2015, and also decrease to less than 5% of difference between city and rural zones, between categories with the low income and categories with average earnings. While the task of scope of children of 3-6 years is already reached, the level of scope of children of 5-6(7) years constituted % 93,5 in 2012.
In spite of the fact that in recent years the provision in connection with access for children to preschool institutions improved, the scope share kindergartens remains low. According to data of the Ministry of Public Education, by the beginning 2013-2014 academic years only in мун. Chisinau people on the waiting list on receipt of the place in kindergarten about 8000 children were listed. At the beginning of 2014 kindergartens 157 settlements, i.e. about 9% of total number of settlements had. Development of services of preschool education in villages is complicated because of the limited budget or poor control of financial resources at the local level, and because of the low level of understanding of importance of investments into the child from the earliest age.
According to official figures, in Moldova there are no private preschool institutions. Actually there are private institutions which provide preschool education, but they are organized as organizations of other type, as the educational centers, public associations, etc. The major factor constraining development of private services is the imperfect legislation which establishes excessive requirements to the owner and the status of the room, and also tough sanitary and hygienic regulations.
In many settlements in which few children of preschool age live opening of the public centers like Community Centre partially solved problem of access to preschool education. Nevertheless, parents, especially in the rural zone prefer more often preschool institutions as the organizations providing leaving, food and safety of children that allows parents to find a job, and the reduced program of work of the centers, 4 - 6 hours devoted to educational activities in such centers does not conform to requirements of parents, busy full time. Thus, diversification of services in the field of early education depending on local requirements by encouragement of development of private services, including at the level of family is necessary.
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