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Approved by the Resolution of Council of Ministers - the Governments of the Russian Federation of October 23, 1993 No. 1090

Traffic regulations of the Russian Federation

(as amended on 31-12-2020)

1. General provisions

1.1. These rules of traffic <*> establish single procedure for traffic in all territory of the Russian Federation. Other regulations concerning traffic shall be based on requirements of Rules and not contradict them.

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<*> Further - Rules.

1.2. In Rules the following basic concepts and terms are used:

"Highway" - the road designated by sign 5.1 <*> and having the carriageways separated from each other by lane line for each driving direction (and in case of its absence - road barrier), without intersection at grades with other roads, railway or tramroads, pedestrian or bicycle lanes.

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<*> Numbering of route signs according to Appendix 1 is hereinafter given.

"Road train" - the motorized vehicle linked to trail car (trail cars).

"Bicycle" - the vehicle, except wheelchairs which has at least two wheels and is set in motion by usually muscular energy of persons which are on this vehicle, in particular by means of pedals or handles and can also have the electric motor the rated maximum power in continuous running which is not exceeding 0,25 of kW which automatically is disconnected at speed more than 25 km/h.

"Cyclist" - person managing bicycle.

"Bicycle lane" - the road element which is structurally separated the carriageway and the sidewalk (or the certain road) intended for movement of cyclists and designated by sign 4.4.1.

Bicycle zone" - the territory intended for movement of cyclists which beginning and the end are designated respectively by signs 5.33.1 and 5.34.1.

"Driver" - person managing any vehicle, the driver conducting on the road of pack, riding animals or herd. To the driver it is equated training to driving.

"Forced stop" - traffic congestion of the vehicle because of its materiel failure or danger created by the transported load, condition of the driver (passenger) or emergence of obstacle in the road.

"Hybrid car" - the vehicle having at least 2 different converters of energy (engines) and 2 different (onboard) systems of energy storage for the purposes of propulsion of the vehicle.

"Main road" - the road designated by signs 2.1, 2.3.1 - 2.3.7 or 5. 1, in relation to crossed (adjoining), or paved road (asfalto-and tsementobeton, stone materials and so forth) in relation to soil, or any road in relation to departures from the adjacent territories. Availability on minor road right in front of the intersection of the site with covering does not do it equal on value with crossed.

"Day after steaming lights" - the external light devices intended for improvement of visibility of the moving vehicle in front during daylight hours.

"Road" - the strip of the earth equipped or adapted and used for movement of vehicles or the surface of artificial feature. The road includes one or several carriageways, and also tramroads, sidewalks, roadsides and lane lines in case of their availability.

"Traffic" - set of the public relations arising in the course of movement of people and loads by means of vehicles or without those within roads.

"Road accident" - the event which arose in the course of movement on the road of the vehicle and with its participation with which people died or are wounded vehicles, constructions, loads are damaged or other material damage is caused.

"Railroad crossing" - crossing of the road with railway tracks at one level.

"The route vehicle" - the general use vehicle (the bus, the trolleybus, the tram) intended for transportation across roads of people and moving along the established route with the designated places of stops.

"Motorized vehicle" - the vehicle set in motion by the engine. The term extends also to any tractors and self-propelled machines.

"Moped" - two - or the three-wheeled motorized vehicle which maximum constructive speed does not exceed 50 km/h having the internal combustion engine with the working volume which is not exceeding 50 cubic cm or the electric motor rated maximum power in continuous running of more 0,25 of kW and less than 4 kW.

The kvadritsikla having similar technical characteristics are equated to mopeds.

"Motorcycle" - the two-wheeled motorized vehicle with side trail car or without it which engine displacement (in case of the internal combustion engine) exceeds 50 cubic cm or the maximum constructive speed (in case of any engine) exceeds 50 km/h. Tricycles, and also the kvadritsikla with motorcycle landing or wheel of motorcycle type having not loaded weight which is not exceeding 400 kg (550 kg for the vehicles intended for carriage of goods) without the mass of accumulators (in case of electric vehicles), and the maximum effective power of the engine which is not exceeding 15 kW are equated to motorcycles.

"Settlement" - the built-up territory on which entrances and departures with which are designated by signs 5.23.1 - 5.26.

"Insufficient visibility" - visibility of the road less than 300 m in the conditions of fog, rain, snowfall and to that similar, and also in twilight.

"Overtaking" - the advancing of one or several vehicles connected with departure on strip (side of the carriageway) intended for approaching traffic and the subsequent return to earlier occupied strip (side of the carriageway).

"Roadside" - the road element adjoining directly the carriageway flush with it, differing in type of covering or allocated by means of marking 1.2, used for movement, stop and the parking according to Rules.

"Training to driving" - the pedagogical employee of the organization performing educational activities and realizing the main programs of professional training of transport drivers of the corresponding categories and subcategories whose qualification meets the qualification requirements specified in job evaluation catalogs, and (or) to professional standards (in the presence), training to vehicle control.

"The student to driving" - person undergoing in accordance with the established procedure the corresponding professional training in the organization performing educational activities and realizing the main programs of professional training of transport drivers of the corresponding categories and subcategories having initial skills of vehicle control and which mastered requirements of Rules.

"Restricted visibility" - the visibility the driver of the road in driving direction limited to land relief, geometrical parameters of the road, vegetation, structures, constructions or other objects, including vehicles.

"Danger to movement" - the situation which arose in the course of traffic in case of which continuation of movement in the same direction and with the same speed creates threat of emergence of the road accident.

"Dangerous goods" - substances, products from them, waste of productive and other economic activity which owing to properties inherent in them can create in transit threat for life and human health, to do harm to the environment, to damage or destroy material values.

"Advancing" - movement of the vehicle with speed, the bigger speed of the passing vehicle.

"Organized transportation of group of children" - the transportation in the bus which is not relating to the route vehicle, groups of children numbering 8 and more people performed without their parents or other legal representatives. 

"Organized road convoy" - group of three and more motorized vehicles, the following directly one after another on the same driving lane with constantly included headlights accompanied by the head vehicle with the special tsvetografichesky schemes and the switched-on flashing indicators of blue and red colors applied on outer surfaces.

"Organized pedestrian column" - the group of the people jointly moving on the way to one direction designated according to Item 4.2 of Rules.

"Stop" - deliberate traffic congestion of the vehicle for a while up to 5 minutes, and also on bigger if it is necessary for landing or disembarkation of passengers or loading or unloading of the vehicle.

"Safety island" - the element of arrangement of the road dividing driving lanes (including strips for cyclists), and also driving lanes and tramroads, structurally allocated with curbstone over carriageway or designated by technical means of the organization of traffic and intended for stop of pedestrians upon transition of carriageway. Part of lane line through which the crosswalk is laid can belong to island of safety.

"The parking (parking space)" - specially designated and if necessary the equipped and equipped place which is including part of the highway and (or) adjoining the carriageway and (or) the sidewalk, roadside, platform or the bridge or being part of subtrestle or subbridge spaces, the areas and other objects of street road net, buildings, structures or constructions and intended for the organized parking of vehicles on paid basis or without collection of payment according to the decision of the owner or other owner of the highway, the owner of the parcel of land or the owner of the corresponding part of the building, structure or construction.

"Passenger" - person, except the driver, being in the vehicle (on him), and also person who enters the vehicle (sits down on it) or goes out of the vehicle (descends from it).

"Intersection" - the place of crossing, adjunction or branching of roads at one level limited to the imagined lines connecting respectively opposite, the most remote from the center of the intersection of the beginning of curves of carriageways. Departures from the adjacent territories are not considered as intersections.

"Evolution" - departure from the occupied strip or the occupied row with preserving initial driving direction.

"Pedestrian" - the person who is out of the vehicle on the road or on pedestrian or cycle pedestrian walkway and not performing on them work. The persons moving in wheelchairs, conducting the bicycle, the moped, the motorcycle carrying the sledge, the cart, the nursery or wheelchair, and also using roller skates, scooters and other similar means for movement are equated to pedestrians.

"Pedestrian walkway" - the strip of the earth equipped or adapted for movement of pedestrians or the surface of artificial feature designated by sign 4.5.1.

"Pedestrian zone" - the territory intended for movement of pedestrians which beginning and the end are designated respectively by signs 5.33 and 5.34.

"Pedestrian and bicycle lane (cycle pedestrian walkway)" - the road element which is structurally separated the carriageway (or the certain road) intended for movement of cyclists, separate or joint with pedestrians, and designated by signs 4.5.2 - 4.5.7.

"Crosswalk" - the site of the carriageway, tramroads designated by signs 5.19. 1, 5.19.2 and (or) marking 1.14.1 and 1.14.2 <*> and allocated for movement of pedestrians across the road. In the absence of marking width of the crosswalk is determined by distance between signs 5.19.1 and 5.19.2.

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<*> Numbering of road marking according to appendix 2 is hereinafter given.

"Driving lane" - any of longitudinal strips of the carriageway designated or not designated by marking and having width sufficient for movement of cars in one row.

"Strip for cyclists" - the carriageway strip intended for movement by bicycles and mopeds, separated other carriageway by horizontal marking and designated by sign 5.14.2.

"Benefit (priority)" - the right to first-priority movement in the planned direction in relation to other participants of movement.

"Obstacle" - motionless object on driving lane (the defective or damaged vehicle, the defect of the carriageway, foreign objects, etc.) which is not allowing to continue movement on this strip.

The jam or the vehicle which stopped on this driving lane according to requirements of Rules is not obstacle.

"The adjacent territory" - the territory directly adjacent to the road and not intended for end-to-end movement of vehicles (the yards, residential arrays, car parks, gas station, the companies and so forth). Movement on the adjacent territory is performed according to these rules.

"Trail car" - the vehicle which is not equipped with the engine and intended for movement in structure with the motorized vehicle. The term extends also to semitrailer trucks and pole trailers.

"Carriageway" - the road element intended for movement of trackless vehicles.

"Lane line" - the road element allocated structurally and (or) by means of marking 1.2, dividing adjacent carriageways, and also the carriageway and tramroads and not intended for movement and stop of vehicles.

"The permitted maximum weight" - the mass of the equipped vehicle with load, the driver and passengers established by manufacturer as the most admissible. The amount of the permitted maximum mass of the vehicles which are part is accepted to the permitted maximum mass of structure of the vehicles that is linked and moving as single whole.

"Traffic controller" - the person given in accordance with the established procedure authority on regulation of traffic by means of the signals established by Rules, and who is directly performing the specified regulation. The traffic controller shall be in uniform and (or) have distinctive mark and equipment. Police officers and military automobile inspection, and also workers of road operational services, persons on duty on railroad crossings and ferry crossings treat traffic controllers in case of execution of the job responsibilities by them. Authorized persons from number of persons employed of divisions of transport safety, the acting as on examination, additional examination, repeated examination, observation and (or) interview for the purpose of ensuring transport safety, concerning regulation of traffic on sections of the highways determined by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation of July 18, 2016 No. 686 "About determination of sections of highways, railway and inland waterways, helidromes, landing sites, and also providing functioning of transport complex of other buildings, constructions, devices and the equipment which are objects of transport infrastructure also concern to traffic controllers".

"Parking" - deliberate traffic congestion of the vehicle for the period of more than 5 minutes for the reasons which are not connected with landing or disembarkation of passengers either loading or unloading of the vehicle.

"Night-time" - period from the end of evening twilight prior to the beginning of morning twilight.

"Vehicle" - the device intended for transportation across roads of people, loads or the equipment installed on it.

"Sidewalk" - the road element intended for movement of pedestrians and adjoining the carriageway or bicycle lane or separated them by lawn.

"Give way (not to create hindrances)" - the requirement meaning that the participant of traffic shall not begin, renew or continue movement perform any maneuver if it can force other participants of movement having in relation to it advantage, to change driving direction or speed.

"The participant of traffic" - person which is directly involved in the course of movement as the driver, the pedestrian, the passenger of the vehicle.

"School bus" - the specialized vehicle (bus) conforming to requirements to the vehicles for transportation of children established by the legislation on technical regulation, and belonging on the property right or on other legal cause of the preschool educational or general education organization.

"Electric vehicle" - the vehicle set in motion by the all-electric engine and loaded by means of external source of electrical power.

1.3. Participants of traffic shall know and observe the requirements of Rules, signals of traffic lights, signs relating to them and marking, and also to carry out orders of the traffic controllers acting within the rights granted to them and regulating traffic by the established signals.

1.4. On roads right-hand traffic of vehicles is established.

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