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ORDER OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

of December 5, 2014 No. 1275

About approval of the Concept of development of the gas sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030

The government of the Republic of Kazakhstan DECIDES:

1. Approve the enclosed Concept of development of the gas sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030 (further - the Concept).

2. To the central state and local executive bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan to take necessary measures for implementation of the Concept.

3. This resolution becomes effective from the date of its signing.

Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan

K. Masimov

Approved by the Order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 5, 2014 No. 1275

The concept of development of the gas sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030

Introduction

In the conditions of the high volatility of the world markets of energy carriers observed now many states and large multi-national oil and gas companies pay close attention to global scenarios of development of need of world economy for hydrocarbonic resources for development of key reference points of the future development.

In Kazakhstan under the leadership of the Head of state it was developed and successfully the strategy of long-term development of the country "Strategy" Kazakhstan - is implemented 2050": New political policy of the taken place state" in which as one of important priorities of sustainable development of the country the comprehensive economic pragmatism in development of industries of economy on the principles of profitability, return from investments and competitiveness is determined that, including, implies review of the current management system gas resources of the country and the gas industry in general.

This Concept determines vision and the main approaches to step-by-step reforming and complex development of the gas sector of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period till 2030.

1. Vision of development of the gas sector

1. Analysis of the current situation and tendencies of development of the gas sector

Resource base

State commission of the Republic of Kazakhstan on inventories approves recoverable reserves of gas at the 3,9 level of one trillion m 3, including associated gas - 2,6 of one trillion m 3, and natural (free) gas - 1,3 of one trillion m3.

Meanwhile, according to one of acknowledged world sources of industry information - the British Petroleum company - gas inventories in Kazakhstan constitute 1,3 of one trillion m 3, that also the 3rd place among countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States allows the Republic of Kazakhstan to take on this indicator the 22nd place in the world (further - the CIS) after Russia and Turkmenistan. Such discrepancy of indicators is caused as high share of associated petroleum gas in gas inventories of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and distinctions in stock counting techniques on which the republic shortly plans to perform transition to international standards.

About 98% of all explored reserves of gas concentrated in the west of Kazakhstan, at the same time more than 87% - in large oil and gas (Tengiz, Kashagan, Royal, Zhanazhol) and oil-gas condensate (Karachaganak, Imashevskoye) fields.

Figure 1. Distribution of recoverable reserves of gas on fields, %

 ис.1 к ПП  К от 05.12.2014 №1275

Source: Department of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan

The largest fields of the Republic of Kazakhstan are characterized by complexity of extraction of hydrocarbons because of big depths (more than 5 thousand meters), complexity of composition of gas (rather low share of methane) and the increased content of hydrosulphuric connections. The available gas fields with small depths and insignificant content of sulphurous connections are characterized by small inventories of gas and have local value for gasification of the local territories.

For 2000 - 2012 the gas stock gain across Kazakhstan constituted 126,6 of one billion m 3, while cumulative gas production for the specified period constituted 342,2 of one billion m3 (taking into account amounts of the sour gas pumped back in layer). Thus, completion of mineral resources of the republic on gas is at the insufficient level which is not exceeding 38%.

Figure 2. Dynamics of ratio of production and stock gain of gas, one billion m3

 ис.2 к ПП  К от 05.12.2014 №1275

Source: Department of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan

Being one of the oldest gas and oil producing regions of the world, Kazakhstan at the same time has considerable unrealized forecast resources of hydrocarbons. So, forecast resources traditional (natural and passing) gas in the republic are estimated at the level of 6 - 8 trillion m3. First of all, it belongs to the Kazakhstan sector of the water area of the Caspian Sea, including its Caspian, Buzachinsky and Southern Mangyshlaksky zones.

The high probability of new considerable opening remains in overland part of Caspian Depression and the water area of the Aral Sea. Also the probability of opening of new oil and gas deposits in other decantation basins as with proved, and unproven industrial oil-and-gas content remains. In total with explored reserves these projections testify to the considerable capacity of Kazakhstan already today taking the noticeable place among the gas and oil producing countries of the world.

Methane of coal layers. In addition to traditional resources of gas, in Kazakhstan there is considerable potential regarding exploration and production of methane of coal layers. Forecast resources of methane of coal fields of Kazakhstan are estimated at the level up to 7 trillion m 3, and resources of methane of the Karaganda coal basin only up to the depth of 1500 meters constitute 490,47 of one billion m3. At the same time content of methane in gas of the Karaganda basin constitutes from 80 to 98% that allows to use it as full-fledged alternative to traditional natural gas.

In turn, the Ekibastuzsky coal basin is insufficiently studied regarding methane inventories, however is unique on concentration of coals and density of resources of gas per unit area. On other coalfields sufficient information on inventories of methane is absent.

It should be noted that production of methane of coal layers is significantly more expensive process in comparison with production on traditional fields and is characterized by smaller indicators of energy profitability (1). If the gas containing in sandstone freely comes to surface due to reservoir pressure, then in deposits of coal it is necessary to create channels for its movement by means of expensive technologies of hydraulic fracturing of layer and the subsequent pumping of water. In this regard production of methane of coal layers actively develops, first of all, in those countries where shortage or stock depletion of traditional gas is observed.

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(1) Energy profitability (EROEI) - ratio of the received energy to spent.

At the same time, in the conditions of Kazakhstan the technology of production of methane of coal layers in some cases (first of all, for gasification of northern regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan) can be economically attractive that causes need of carrying out the corresponding researches and realization of pilot project on production in the most studied Karaganda coal basin.

Coal gasification. Kazakhstan is included into ten the countries with the largest coal resource which according to British Petroleum constitute procedure for 33,6 one billion tons (2). At the same time their considerable share is constituted by the high-ash, high-sulphurous coals which are almost not used in power because of low-quality and the high level of impact on the environment.

At the same time, these coals are methods of underground or land gasification, suitable for use, which main product is the mix of carbon monoxide and hydrogen called by synthetic (generating) gas. This gas can be used for development of electrical and heat energy, and also for the subsequent production of synthetic oil products.

It should be noted that both technologies of gasification of coals are characterized by low economic appeal, especially in case of use of gas for power generation. At the same time, taking into account the expected further depletion of fields of hydrocarbonic raw materials, technologies of gasification of coal in the long term can become cost-efficient in case of implementation of the scheme of the subsequent synthesis of oil products.

In turn, during implementation of this Concept Kazakhstan should apply these technologies to trial operation and within carrying out scientific research.

Slate gas. On slate gas in Kazakhstan of special researches it was not carried out in this connection data on availability of geological and recoverable reserves are absent. Moreover, even after the beginning of commercial production of slate gas, information on inventories of the respective field cannot be also determined authentically.

Gas production from slate breeds is performed by means of drilling of numerous wells and hydraulic fracturings of layers, and also is characterized by low profitability and develops in case of lack of resources of traditional gas. Thus, At this stage of work on slate gas in Kazakhstan will be limited to studying of prospects of its inventories.

Biogas. Basis of biogas production is the technology of metane sbrazhivaniye of organic waste of livestock production and crop production, and also household waste. Today in Kazakhstan the production technology of combustible gas and other chemical compounds, including fertilizers, method of metane sbrazhivaniye is practically absent. (3)

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(2) the State Commission on Mineral Reserves of the Republic of Kazakhstan approves coal resource in amount of 34,5 of one billion tons.

(3) Biogas installation in complex from mini-combined heat and power plant with an electric power of 360 kW was brought into operation in 2011 in the Kostanay region.

Meanwhile, the republic has in this sphere considerable potential. So, according to the Project of Development of the export potential of meat of cattle of the Republic of Kazakhstan, in the country by 2020 it is planned to have on sagination of procedure for 1,1 one million beasts that can provide biogas production at the level of 95 million m3 a year. Besides, in Kazakhstan cumulatively more than 22 billion tons of household waste in case of which utilization production about 180 million m3 of biogas a year is possible.

Biogas production in the current conditions is low-profitable, however shall be considered by the state through prism of decrease in emissions of greenhouse gases, waste recyclings of livestock production, improvement of ecology of the cities, prevention of the fires and zadymleniye on landfills and other positive results.

Production and use

Gas production in Kazakhstan following the results of 2013 constituted 42,3 of one billion m 3, that above indicator of previous year on % 5,4. The main gas companies in the Republic of Kazakhstan are:

1) Karachaganak Petroleum Opereyting B. V. - 17,5 of one billion m3;

2) Tengizshevroil LLP - 14,6 of one billion m3;

3) JSC SNPS-Aktobemunaygaz - 3,5 of one billion m3;

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