Document from CIS Legislation database © 2003-2022 SojuzPravoInform LLC

The document ceased to be valid since September 3, 2015 according to Item 1 of the Order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of August 21, 2015 No. 657

Approved by the Order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of October 24, 2012 No. 1355

Regulations for electrical installation

1. General provisions

1. These rules are developed according to the subitem 16) of article 4 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About power industry" and are applied during the designing, reconstruction and operation of the operating electroinstallations.

2. In these rules the following concepts and terms are applied:

1) electroinstallations - set of the machines, devices, lines and the service equipment (together with constructions and rooms, in which they are established) intended for production, transformation, transformation, transfer, distribution of electrical energy and its transformation to other type of energy.

Electroinstallations under the terms of electrical safety are divided by Rules into electroinstallations to 1 kV and electroinstallations are higher than 1 kV (on the operating value of tension);

2) open or outside electroinstallations - the electroinstallations which are not protected by the building from atmospheric actions.

The electroinstallations protected only by canopies, mesh barriers, etc. are considered as outside;

3) the closed or internal electroinstallations - the electroinstallations placed in the building protecting them from atmospheric actions;

4) electrorooms - rooms or the fenced-off parts of the room available only to qualified service personnel in which electroinstallations are located;

5) dry rooms - rooms in which relative humidity of air does not exceed 60%. In case of absence in such rooms of the conditions given in subitems 9) - 11) Item 1 they are called normal.

6) wet rooms - rooms in which vapors or the condensing moisture is emitted only quickly in small amounts and relative humidity of air more than 60%, but does not exceed 75%;

7) crude rooms - rooms in which relative humidity of air it is long is exceeded by 75%;

8) especially crude rooms - rooms in which relative humidity of air is close to 100% (the ceiling, the walls, floor and objects which are in the room are covered with moisture);

9) hot rooms - rooms in which under the influence of different thermal radiations temperature exceeds constantly or periodically (more than 1 days) + 35 °C (rooms with dryers, drying and obzhigatelny furnaces, boiler rooms, etc.);

10) dusty rooms - rooms in which under the terms of production technology dust in such quantity is emitted that it can accumulate on wires, gets in machines, devices, etc.

Dusty rooms are divided into rooms with conducting dust and rooms with not conducting dust;

11) rooms with chemically active or organic circle - rooms which constantly or contain for a long time aggressive vapors, gases, liquids are formed the deposits or mold destroying isolation and current carrying parts of electric equipment;

12) oil-filled devices - devices which have separate elements and all normally sparking parts or parts between which the arch is formed are shipped in oil so that the possibility of contact between these parts and air is excluded;

13) nominal rates of parameter (nominal parameter) - the parameter value specified by the manufacturer of the electrotechnical device which is initial for counting of variations from this value in case of operation and testing of the device;

14) qualified service personnel - specially prepared persons which underwent examination in the amount obligatory for this work (position) and having the qualification group on safe engineering provided by Safety regulations in case of operation of electroinstallations;

15) power system (power supply system) - set of the power plants, the power and thermal networks connected among themselves and connected by mode community in continuous process of production, transformation and distribution of electrical energy and warmth in case of general management by this mode;

16) electric part of power supply system - set of electroinstallations of power plants and power networks of power supply system;

17) electric utility system - electric part of power supply system and receivers of electrical energy which are powered from it combined by community of production process, transfer, distribution and consumption of electrical energy;

18) electric utility service - providing consumers with electrical energy;

19) utility power system - set of the electroinstallations intended for providing consumers with electrical energy;

20) centralized electric utility service - electric utility service of consumers from power supply system;

21) power network - the set of electroinstallations for transfer and distribution of electrical energy consisting of substations, distribution; devices, current-conducting wires, air and cable power lines working at certain territory;

22) the receiver of electrical energy (electroreceiver) - the device, the aggregate, the mechanism intended for transformation of electrical energy to other type of energy;

23) the consumer of electrical energy - the electroreceiver or group of the electroreceivers combined by engineering procedure and which are placed in certain territory, and also legal entity or physical person in which property there are these electroreceivers;

24) the independent power supply of the electroreceiver or group of electroreceivers - the power supply on which tension in the limits regulated by these rules for postemergency operation in case of its disappearance on the friend remains or other power supplies of these electroreceivers.

Two sections or systems of tires of one or two power plants and substations in case of simultaneous observance of the following two conditions are among independent power supplies:

each of sections or systems of tires in turn has food from the independent power supply;

sections (system) of tires are not connected among themselves or have the communication which automatically is disconnected in case of violation of normal work of one of sections (systems) of tires;

25) commercial accounting of the electric power - determination of values of the electric power for the purpose of carrying out commercial calculations between subjects of the market;

26) capacity control - the control over the implementation of the schedule of development and consumption of electric power flowing (in real time);

27) the counter of commercial accounting - the technical device allowed for use in the procedure established by the legislation, intended for commercial accounting of electrical energy;

28) commercial measuring complex of accounting of the electric power (further - IKUE) - set of means of the measuring equipment (large-scale measuring converters - current transformers (further - TT) and the tension (further - TN), the automated measuring instrument - electric power meter) connected among themselves by communication lines (secondary chains) according to the technical and regulating documentation and forming continuous way of passing of measuring signal for measurement of value of the electric power and other electrical quantities in accounting point;

29) the automated system of commercial accounting of the electric power (further - ASKUE) - complex of technical means in which IKUE established on power facilities are combined by the corresponding equipment of collection, transfer and processing of results of measurement for the automated determination of value of the electric power moved through accounting points.

Commercial counters shall perform functions of accumulating, storage, coding of information and with the set time interval to automatically transfer data of commercial accounting and information on the considered electric power fixed for each set capacity measurement moment to devices of collection and storage;

30) technical (control) accounting of the electric power - accounting for control of expense of the electric power in power plants, substations, the companies, etc.;

31) power network with effectively grounded neutral - three-phase power network over 1 kV in which the short circuit coefficient on the earth does not exceed 1,4.

The short circuit coefficient on the earth in three-phase power network is determined by the potential difference relation between the unimpaired phase and the earth in short circuit point on the earth another or two other phases to potential difference between phase and the earth in this point before short circuit;

32) glukhozazemlenny neutral - the neutral of the transformer or generator attached to the grounding device it is direct or through small resistance;

33) the isolated neutral - the neutral of the transformer or generator which is not attached to the grounding device or attached to it via devices of the alarm system, measurement, protection and similar by it the devices having big resistance;

34) grounding - deliberate electric connection of any point of network, electroinstallation or the equipment with the grounding device;

35) protective grounding - the grounding which is carried out for the purpose of ensuring electrical safety;

36) working grounding - the grounding of any point of current carrying parts of electroinstallation necessary for ensuring work of electroinstallation;

37) zeroing in electroinstallations up to 1 kV - deliberate connection of the parts of electroinstallation which are normally not energized with glukhozazemlenny neutral of the generator or transformer in networks of three-phase current, with glukhozazemlenny conclusion of source of single-phase current, with the grounded point of source in networks of direct current, carried out for the purpose of electrical safety;

38) short circuit on the earth - accidental connection of the current carrying parts of electroinstallation which are energized with the earth. Short circuit on the body is called accidental connection of the parts of electroinstallation which are energized with their constructive parts which are normally not energized;

39) the grounding device - set of grounding conductor and the grounding conductors;

40) grounding conductor - the conductor or set metal the conductors connected among themselves which are in contact with the earth;

41) artificial grounding conductor - the grounding conductor which is specially carried out for the purposes of grounding;

42) natural grounding conductor - the electroconductive parts of communications, buildings and constructions of production or other appointment which are in contact with the earth used for the purposes of grounding;

43) the main grounding tire - the tire which is part of the grounding device of electroinstallation up to 1 kV and intended for accession of several conductors for the purpose of grounding and equalization of potentials;

44) the open carrying-out part - the electroconductive part of electroinstallation available to touch of the person which is normally not energized, but which can appear energized in case of isolation violation;

45) the third-party carrying-out part - electroconductive part which is not part of electroinstallation;

46) current carrying part - the electroconductive part of electroinstallation which is in process of work under the working tension;

47) the grounding conductor - the conductor connecting the grounded parts to grounding conductor;

48) the protective conductor - the conductor intended for the electrical safety purposes;

49) the protective grounding conductor - the protective conductor intended for protective grounding;

50) the protective conductor of equalization of potentials - the protective conductor intended for protective equalization of potentials;

51) the zero protective conductor - the protective conductor in electroinstallations up to 1 kV intended for accession of the open carrying-out parts to glukhozazemlenny neutral of the power supply;

52) the zero working conductor - the conductor used for food of electroreceivers up to 1 kV, connected to glukhozazemlenny neutral of the generator or transformer in networks of three-phase current with glukhozazemlenny conclusion of source of single-phase current, with glukhozazemlenny point of source in networks of direct current;

53) the conductor combined zero working and zero protective - the conductor combining functions of the zero protective and zero working conductor;

54) spreading zone - area of the earth between grounding conductor and zone of zero potential;

55) zone of zero potential - the area of the earth which is out of zone of influence of any grounding conductor which electric potential is accepted equal to zero;

56) tension on the grounding device - tension arising in case of running off of current from grounding conductor to the earth between point of input of current in the grounding device and zone of zero potential;

57) touch tension - tension between two electroconductive parts or between the carrying-out part and the earth in case of simultaneous touch of the person to them;

58) step tension - tension between two points on the Earth's surface at distance of 1 m one from another which is accepted equal to length of step of the person;

59) protection against direct touch - protection for prevention of touch to the current carrying parts which are energized;

60) protection in case of indirect touch - protection against defeat by electric current in case of touch to the open carrying-out parts which appeared energized in case of isolation damage;

61) resistance of the grounding device - tension relation on the grounding device to the current which is flowing down from grounding conductor to the earth;

62) the equivalent specific resistance of the earth with heterogeneous structure - the specific resistance of the earth with homogeneous structure in which resistance of the grounding device has the same value, as in the earth with heterogeneous structure.

The term "specific resistance" applied in these rules for the earth with heterogeneous structure should be understood as "the equivalent specific resistance";

63) protective automatic shutdown - automatic disconnection of chain of one or several phase conductors and, if necessary, the zero working conductor for the purpose of electrical safety.

The term "automatic power off" used in Rules should be understood as "protective automatic power off";

64) equalization of potentials - electric connection of the carrying-out parts for achievement of equality of their potentials;

65) protective equalization of potentials - the equalization of potentials which is carried out for the purpose of electrical safety.

The term "equalization of potentials" used in Rules should be understood as "protective equalization of potentials";

66) equalization of potentials - decrease in potential difference (step tension) on the Earth's surface or floor by means of the protective conductors laid in the earth, in floor or on their surface and attached to the grounding device, or by application of special coverings of the earth;

67) the main isolation - the isolation of current carrying parts providing in addition to basic purpose, protection against direct touch;

68) additional isolation - the independent isolation in electroinstallations up to 1 kV which is carried out in addition to the main isolation for protection in case of indirect touch;

69) double isolation - set of the main and additional izolyation;

70) the strengthened isolation - the isolation in electroinstallations up to 1 kV providing degree of protection against defeat with electric current, equivalent to the protection provided with double isolation;

71) small tension - voltage is no more than 42 V of alternating current and 110 V - permanent;

72) the dividing transformer - the transformer which primary winding is separated secondary windings by means of protective electric separation of chains;

73) the safe dividing transformer - the dividing transformer intended for food of chains by small tension;

74) the filter - the carrying-out screen intended for department of electric chain or conductors from current carrying parts of other chains;

75) protective electric separation of chains - department of one electric chain from other chains in electroinstallations up to 1 kV with the help:

double isolation;

main isolation and filter;

the strengthened isolation;

76) the nonconducting (isolating) rooms (zones) - rooms, zones, platforms in which (on which) protection in case of indirect touch is provided with the high resistance of floor and walls and in which there are no grounded electroconductive parts;

77) the test tension of industrial frequency - the operating value of tension with a frequency of 50 Hz, almost sinusoidal form which internal and external isolation of electric equipment under certain conditions shall maintain testing during the set time;

78) electric equipment with normal isolation - electric equipment intended for application in the electroinstallations subject to action of atmospheric retension in case of regular measures for lighting protection;

79) electric equipment with the facilitated isolation - electric equipment intended for application only in the electroinstallations not subject to action of atmospheric retension or equipped with the special devices of lighting protection limiting amplitude value of atmospheric retension to the value which is not exceeding amplitude value of test tension of industrial frequency;

80) devices - switches of all classes of tension, disconnectors, separators, korotkozamykatel, safety locks, rated sportsmen, current-limiting reactors, condensers, complete screened current-conducting wires;

81) the unrationed measured size - the size which absolute value is not regulated by normative instructions. Equipment condition assessment in this case is made by comparison to data of similar measurements on the same equipment having obviously good characteristics or with results of other testing;

82) electric equipment tension class - the rated voltage of electric system in which for work this electric equipment is intended;

83) the effective length of way of leakage - the part of length of way of leakage determining the electric durability of the insulator or insulating design in the conditions of pollution and moistening;

84) the specific effective length of way of leakage (lambda e) - the relation of effective length of way of leakage to the largest working interphase tension of network in which electroinstallation works;

85) utilization rate of length of way of leakage (k) - the correction coefficient considering efficiency of use of length of way of leakage of the insulator or insulating design;

86) extent of pollution (further - SZ) - the indicator considering influence of impurity of the atmosphere on decrease in electric durability of isolation of electroinstallations;

87) the card of extents of pollution (further - KSZ) - the map zoning the territory on SZ;

88) the distributing device (further - RU) - the electroinstallation serving for acceptance and electricity distribution and containing switching devices, combined and connecting tires, auxiliary devices (compressor, accumulator, etc.), and also devices of protection, automatic equipment and measuring devices;

89) the open distributing device (further - ORU) - RU which all or capital equipment is located in the open air;

90) the closed distributing device (further - ZRU) - RU which equipment is located in the building.

The combined switch is called the switch which in the opened provision meets requirements imposed to disconnectors regarding the isolation durability and in which the stationary grounding conductor (grounding conductors), mechanical and electric blocking of drives of the switch and grounding conductor (grounding conductors) excluding spontaneous or unauthorized turning on of the switch and shutdown of grounding conductor (grounding conductors) are structurally provided;

91) complete distributing device - RU consisting from fully or partially the closed cases or blocks with the devices which are built in them, devices of protection and automatic equipment, delivered in the collected or completely prepared for assembly type.

The complete distributing device intended for internal installation in abbreviated form is designated by KRU. The complete distributing device intended for outside installation in abbreviated form is designated by KRUN;

92) substation - the electroinstallation serving for transformation and electricity distribution and consisting of transformers or other converters of energy, distributing devices, control units and auxiliary constructions.

Depending on dominance of this or that function of substations they are called transformer or converting;

93) the attached substation (the attached RU) - substation (RU) which is directly adjoining (adjoining) the main building;

94) the built-in substation (the built-in RU) - the closed substation (the closed RU) entered (entered) in contour of the main building;

95) intra shop substation - the substation located in the factory building (it is opened or in the certain enclosed space);

96) complete transformer (converting) substation - the substation consisting of transformers (converters) and blocks (CREWE or KRUN and other elements) delivered in the collected or completely prepared for assembly type. Complete transformer (converting) substations (KTP, the check point) or speak rapidly them established indoors, treat internal installations, established in the open air - outside installations;

97) stolbovy (mast) transformer substation - open transformer substation which all equipment is installed on designs or on the VL support at height which is not requiring barrier of substation;

98) distribution point (further - RP) - RU intended for acceptance and electricity distribution at one tension without transformation and transformation, which is not part of substation;

99) the camera - the room intended for installation of devices and tires;

100) the closed camera - the camera closed from all directions and having continuous (not mesh) doors;

101) the protected camera - the camera which has the apertures protected fully or partially by not continuous barriers.

The mixed barriers are understood as barriers from grids and continuous sheets;

102) the explosive camera - the closed camera intended for localization of possible emergency effects in case of damage of the devices established in it and having exit outside or in explosive corridor;

103) servicing corridor - the corridor along cameras or cases of KRU intended for servicing of devices and tires;

104) explosive corridor - corridor in which there are doors of explosive cameras;

105) the converting aggregate - the equipment set consisting of one or several semiconductor converters, the transformer, and also devices and the equipment necessary for start-up and operation of the aggregate;

106) the semiconductor converter - set of the semiconductor gates (uncontrollable or managed) mounted on frames or in cases with system of air or water chilling, and also devices and the equipments necessary for start-up and operation of the converter;

107) the feeding lighting network - network from the distributing device of substation or branch from electricity transmission air-lines to VU, VRU, GRShch;

108) distribution network - network from VU, VRU, GRShch to distribution points, guards and Items of food of outside lighting;

109) group network - network from guards to lamps, plug sockets and other electroreceivers;

110) Item of food of outside lighting - the electric distributing device for accession of group network of outside lighting to the power supply;

111) phase of the night mode - the phase of the feeding or distribution network of outside lighting which is not disconnected at night;

112) cascade management system outside lighting - the system performing consecutive inclusion (shutdown) of sites of group network of outside lighting;

113) lamp charging wires - the wires laid in the lamp from the contact clips or plug sockets established in it for accession to network (for the lamp which does not have in contact clips or the plug socket - wires or cables from the place of connection of the lamp to network) to the devices established in the lamp and lamp cartridges;

114) the cable line - the line for transmission of electricity or its separate impulses consisting of one or several parallel cables with connecting, lock and trailer couplings (seals) and fasteners, and for oil-filled lines, besides, with the feeding devices and system of the alarm system of pressure of oil;

115) cable construction - the construction which is specially intended for placement in it of cables, cable couplings, and also maslopodpityvayushchy devices and other equipment intended for ensuring normal work of oil-filled cable lines. Treat cable constructions: cable tunnels, channels, box, the blocks, mines, floors, double floors, cable platforms, galleries, cameras feeding Items;

116) the cable tunnel - the closed construction (corridor) with the supporting frameworks located in it for placement on them of cables and cable couplings, with the easy access on all length allowing to make laying of cables, repairs and surveys of cable lines;

117) cable channel - closed and buried (in parts or in full) in soil, floor, overlapping, etc., the chanceless construction intended for placement in it of cables which stacking, survey and repair it is possible to make only in case of the removed overlapping;

118) the cable mine - vertical cable construction (rectangular section) which has height several times more party of section, supplied with brackets or ladder for movement of people along it (mines through passage) or wall removable fully or partially (chanceless mines);

119) the cable floor - the part of the building limited to floor and overlapping or covering with distance between floor and the acting parts of overlapping or covering is at least m 1,8;

120) the cable block - cable construction with pipes (channels) for laying of cables in them with the wells relating to it;

121) the cable camera - the underground cable construction closed by deaf removable concrete plate, intended for stacking of tiled couplings or for broach of cables in blocks. The camera having the hatch for entrance to it is called cable well;

122) cable platform - elevated or land open horizontal or inclined extended cable construction. The cable platform can be through passage or chanceless;

123) cable gallery - elevated or land closed fully or partially (without side walls) horizontal or inclined extended cable construction through passage;

124) double floor - the cavity limited to room walls, inserted floor and half of the room with removable plates (on all or part of the square);

125) the cable oil-filled line of low or high pressure - the line in which admissible excessive pressure is long constitutes:

0, 0245-0,294 MPas (0,25-3,0 of kgf/cm2) for cables of low pressure in lead cover;

0, 0245-0,49 MPas (0,25-5,0 of kgf/cm 2) for cables of low pressure in aluminum cover;

1, 08-1,57 MPas (11 - 16 kgfs/cm2) for cables of high pressure;

126) section of the cable oil-filled line of low pressure - the site of the line between lock couplings or lock and trailer couplings;

127) the feeding Item - elevated, land or underground construction with the feeding devices and the equipment (food tanks, pressure tanks feeding aggregates, etc.);

128) the razvetvitelny device - part of the cable line of high pressure between the end of the steel pipeline and trailer single-phase couplings;

129) the feeding aggregate - automatically the operating device consisting of tanks, pumps, pipes, perepuskny valves, gates, the board of automatic equipment and other equipment intended for ensuring feed with oil of the cable line of high pressure;

130) class B-I zones - the zones located in rooms in which combustible gases or vapors of LVZh in such quantity and with such properties are emitted that they can form with air explosive mixes in case of normal operating modes, when loading or unloading technology devices, storage or transfusion of LVZh which are in open reservoirs, etc.;

131) zones of the class V-Ia - the zones located in rooms in which in case of normal operation explosive mixes of combustible gases (irrespective of the lower concentration limit of ignition) or vapors of LVZh with air are not formed and are possible only as a result of accidents or defects;

132) zones of the class B-Ib - the zones located in rooms in which in case of normal operation explosive mixes of combustible gases or vapors of LVZh with air are not formed and are possible only as a result of accidents or defects and which differ in one of the following features:

1) combustible gases in these zones have high lower concentration limit of ignition (15% and more) and pungent smell in case of threshold limit values;

2) rooms of the productions connected with the address of gaseous hydrogen in which under the terms of engineering procedure formation of explosive mix in the amount exceeding 5% of free amount of the room is excluded have explosive zone only in the upper part of the room. The explosive zone conditionally is accepted from the mark 0,75 of general height of the room, considering from floor level, but not above crane way if that is available (rooms of electrolysis of water, charging stations of traction and staterny rechargeable batteries, etc.).

In the subitem 2) Item 131 of these rules does not extend to electromachine rooms with turbogenerators with hydrogen chilling on condition of providing the electromachine room with the exhaust ventilation with natural motivation; these electromachine rooms have the normal circle.

Also zones of laboratory and other rooms in which combustible gases and LVZh are available in the small amounts insufficient for creation of explosive mix in the amount exceeding 5% of free amount of the room and in which work with combustible gases and LVZh is made without application of open flame belong to the class B-Ib. These zones do not belong to explosive if work with combustible gases and LVZh is made in fume cupboards or under exhaust umbrellas;

133) zones of the class V-Ig - space at outside installations: the technology installations containing combustible gases or LVZh (except for outside ammoniac compressor installations, the choice of electric equipment for which is made according to Item 1399 of these rules) elevated and underground storage tanks with LVZh or combustible gases (gas-holders), platforms for discharge and filling LVZh, open oil traps, ponds settlers with floating oil film, etc.;

Also treat zones of the class V-Ig: spaces at apertures behind the outside protecting structures of rooms with explosive zones of the classes B-I, V-Ia and V-II (exception - apertures of windows with filling with glass blocks); spaces at the outside protecting designs if on them devices for emission of air from systems of the exhaust ventilation of rooms with explosive zones of any class are located or if they are in limits of outside explosive zone; spaces at safety and respiratory valves of reservoirs and technology devices with combustible gases and LVZh;

134) zones of the class V-II - the zones located in rooms in which are allocated turning into suspension combustible dust or fiber in such quantity and with such properties that they are capable to form with air explosive mixes in case of normal operating modes;

Zones of the class V-IIA - the zones located in rooms in which the dangerous conditions specified in this Item do not take place in case of normal operation and are possible only as a result of accidents or defects.

3. Electric equipments and materials used in electroinstallations shall conform to requirements of the state standards and specifications approved in accordance with the established procedure.

4. The design, execution, method of installation and class of isolation of the used machines, devices, devices and other electric equipment, and also cables and wires shall correspond to parameters of network or electroinstallation, conditions of the environment and requirements of the corresponding Chapters of these rules.

5. Electric equipments used in electroinstallations, cables and wires on to the normalized, the guaranteed and settlement characteristics shall correspond to operating conditions of this installation.

In operation conditions of normal operation of devices and the equipment of management and automation of engineering procedures, protection and secondary chains are provided (admissible temperature, humidity, vibration, variations of working parameters from nominal, the level of hindrances, etc.).

6. Electroinstallations and the related designs shall be resistant concerning impact of the environment or are protected from this impact.

7. Construction and sanitary parts of electroinstallations (structure of the building and its elements, heating, ventilation, water supply and so forth) shall be carried out according to the operating construction regulations and rules (further - Construction Norms and Regulations) in case of compulsory execution of the additional requirements provided in these rules.

8. Electroinstallations shall meet requirements of the existing directive documents on prohibition of the environmental pollution harmful or the disturbing influence of noise, vibration and electric fields.

9. In electroinstallations collection and waste disposal shall be provided: chemicals, oil, garbage, technical waters, etc. According to the existing requirements for environmental protection the possibility of hit of the specified waste in reservoirs, system of removal of storm waters, ravines, and also on the territories which are not intended for this waste shall be excluded.

10. Designing and the choice of schemes, configurations and designs of electroinstallations are made on the basis of technical and economic comparisons, application of simple and reliable schemes, implementation of the latest equipment, taking into account operating experience, the smallest expense of color and other scarce materials, the equipment, etc.

11. In case of danger of emergence of electrocorrosion or soil corrosion the relevant activities for protection of constructions, the equipment, pipelines and other underground communications are provided.

12. In electroinstallations the possibility of easy recognition of the parts relating to their separate elements (simplicity and visualization of schemes, proper arrangement of electric equipment, text, marking, coloring) shall be provided.

13. Alphanumeric and color designations of the tires of the same name in each electroinstallation shall be identical.

Tires are designated:

1) in case of alternating three-phase current: phase A tires - yellow color, phases B - green, phases C - red, the zero worker - blue, the same tire used as zero protective - longitudinal strips of yellow and green colors;

2) in case of alternating single-phase current: the tire A attached to the beginning of winding of the power supply - yellow color, and In, attached to the end of winding - red.

Tires of single-phase current if they are branch from tires of three-phase system, are designated as the corresponding tires of three-phase current;

3) in case of direct current: the positive tire (+) - red color, negative - blue and the zero worker M - blue;

4) reserve - as the reserved main tire if the reserve tire can replace any of the main tires, then it is designated by cross strips of color of the main tires.

Color designation shall be executed on all length of tires if it is provided also for more intensive chilling or for anticorrosive protection.

It is allowed to carry out color designation not on all length of tires, only color or only alphanumeric designation or color in combination with alphanumeric only in places of connection of tires; if uninsulated tires are unavailable to survey when they are energized, then it is allowed not to designate them. At the same time, the level of safety and visualization when servicing electroinstallation shall not decrease.

14. In case of arrangement of tires in distributing devices (except KRU of factory production) it is necessary to comply with the following conditions:

1) in the closed distributing devices in case of alternating three-phase current of the tire shall be located:

combined and bypass tires, and also all types of section tires in case of vertical arrangement And - In - With from top to down; in case of arrangement it is horizontal, obliquely or triangle the most remote tire A, average In, the next to servicing corridor With;

branches from combined tires - from left to right And - In - With if to look at tires from servicing corridor (in the presence of three corridors - from central);

in electroinstallations up to 1 kV in five - and four-wire chains of three-phase alternating current:

in case of vertical arrangement - And - In - With - N - RE (REN) from top to down;

in case of arrangement horizontally or obliquely - the most remote tire - And, the next to servicing corridor - RE (REN) in case of the sequence of arrangement of A-B-C-N-RE (REN);

branches from combined tires - from left to right if to look at tires from servicing corridor (in the presence of three corridors - from central), since the tire of RE (REN).

2) in open distributing devices in case of alternating three-phase current of the tire shall be located:

combined and bypass tires, and also all types of section tires shunting crossing points and crossing points in schemes ring, one-and-a-half, etc. shall have from the main transformers at the highest tension the tire A;

branches from combined tires in open distributing devices shall be carried out so that the arrangement of tires of accessions was And from left to right - In - With if to take a detached view tires of the transformer.

The arrangement of tires of branches in cells irrespective of their placement in relation to combined tires shall be identical.

3) in case of direct current of the tire shall be located:

combined tires in case of vertical arrangement: upper M, average, lower (+);

combined tires in case of horizontal arrangement: the most remote M, average and the next (+) if to look at tires from servicing corridor;

branches from combined tires: the left tire M, average, right (+) if to look at tires from servicing corridor.

Departures from the requirements provided in subitems 1) - 3) Item 13 of these rules are in some cases allowed if their accomplishment is connected with essential complication of electroinstallations (causes the necessity of installation of special support near substation for transline item of wires of air-lines (further - VL) or if two or more steps of transformation are applied on substation.

15. In electrorooms with installations to 1 kV application of the uninsulated and isolated current carrying parts without protection against touch is allowed if on local conditions such protection is not necessary for any other purposes. At the same time, available parts shall be located so that normal servicing was not integrated to danger of touch to them.

16. All protecting and closing devices shall have according to local conditions sufficient mechanical durability. At voltage over 1 kV thickness of the metal protecting and closing devices shall be at least 1 mm. The devices intended for protection of wires and cables against mechanical damages shall be entered into machines, devices and devices.

2. Electric utility service and power networks

1. General provisions

17. When designing utility power systems and reconstruction of electroinstallations the following questions are considered:

1) perspective of development of power supply systems and utility power systems taking into account rational combination of again constructed power networks to the operating and again constructed networks of other classes of tension;

2) ensuring complex centralized electric utility service of all consumers located in the action area of power networks irrespective of their departmental accessory;

3) restriction of currents of KZ with the limits determined on perspective;

4) decrease in losses of electrical energy.

At the same time, in complex are considered external and internal electric utility service taking into account opportunities and economic feasibility of technology reservation.

In case of the solution of questions of reservation the reloading capability of elements of electroinstallations, and also reserve availability in processing equipment is considered.

18. In case of the solution of questions of development of utility power systems repair, emergency and postemergency operation is considered.

19. In case of the choice of the independent mutually reserving power supplies which are power supply system objects the probability of simultaneous dependent short-term decrease or total disappearance of tension for the period of action of relay protection and automatic equipment in case of damages to electric part of power supply system, and also simultaneous long disappearance of tension on these power supplies in case of severe system accidents is considered.

20. Designing of power networks is performed taking into account type of their servicing (permanent watch, watch at home, mobile teams, etc.).

21. Work of power networks of 3-35 kV is provided both with the isolated neutral, and with the neutral grounded via the dugogasyashchy reactor or the resistor.

Work of power networks, 110 kV shall be provided both with deafly grounded, and with effectively grounded neutral.

Work of power networks of 220 kV shall be provided only with deafly grounded neutral.

Compensation of capacity current of short circuit on the earth shall be applied in case of values of this current in the normal modes:

1) in networks of 3-20 kV having steel concrete and metal support on VL and in all networks of 35 kV - more than 10 And;

2) in the networks which do not have steel concrete and metal support on VL: at voltage of 3 - 6 kV - more than 30 And; in case of 10 kV - more than 20 And; in case of 15 - 20 kV - more than 15 And;

3) in schemes 6 - 20 kV of blocks the generator - the transformer (at generating tension) - more than 5 And.

In case of short circuit currents on the earth more than 50 And at least two grounding dugogasyashchy reactors are used.

2. Categories of electroreceivers and ensuring reliability of electric utility service

22. Concerning ensuring reliability of electric utility service electroreceivers are divided into the following three categories:

Category electroreceivers I - electroreceivers which break of electric utility service can entail: danger to life of people, significant damage of business economics, damage of the expensive capital equipment, mass scrap of products, disorder of difficult engineering procedure, violation of functioning of especially important elements of municipal services.

From structure of electroreceivers I of category the special group of electroreceivers which smooth operation is necessary for accident-free stop of production for the purpose of prevention of threat of life of people, explosions, the fires and damage of the expensive capital equipment is allocated.

Category electroreceivers II - electroreceivers which break of electric utility service leads to mass nedootpusk of products, mass idle times of workers, mechanisms and industrial transport, violation of normal activities of significant amount city and villagers.

Category electroreceivers III - all other electroreceivers which are not fitting the definitions of I and II categories.

23. Electroreceivers I of category are provided with the electric power from two independent mutually reserving power supplies, and the break of their electric utility service in case of violation of electric utility service from one of power supplies is allowed only for the period of automatic recovery of food.

For electric utility service of special group of electroreceivers I of category additional food from the third independent mutually reserving power supply is provided.

As the third independent power supply for special group of electroreceivers and as the second independent power supply for other electroreceivers I of category local power plants, power plants of power supply systems (in particular, tires of generating tension), special aggregates of uninterrupted food, rechargeable batteries, etc. are used.

If it is impossible to provide with reservation of electric utility service necessary continuity of engineering procedure or if reservation of electric utility service is economically inexpedient, technology reservation is performed.

Electric utility service of electroreceivers I of category with the particularly complex continuous engineering procedure requiring long time on recovery of operating mode in the presence of feasibility statements is performed from two independent mutually reserving power supplies to which the additional requirements determined by features of engineering procedure are imposed.

24. Electroreceivers II of category are provided with the electric power from two independent mutually reserving power supplies.

For category electroreceivers II in case of violation of electric utility service from one of power supplies electric utility service breaks for time necessary for inclusion of reserve food by actions of personnel on duty or mobile operational team are admissible.

25. For category electroreceivers III electric utility service is carried out from one power supply provided that the electric utility service breaks necessary for repair or replacement of the damaged utility power system element, do not exceed 1 days.

3. Levels and regulation of tension, compensation of reactive capacity

26. Devices of regulation of tension shall provide maintenance of tension on those tires of 6 - 20 kV of power plants and substations to which distribution networks are attached, within not lower than 105% nominal in the period of the greatest loadings and it is not higher than 100% nominal in the period of the smallest loadings of these networks.

27. The devices of compensation of reactive capacity established at the consumer shall provide consumption from power supply system of reactive capacity in the limits specified in conditions accession of electroinstallations of this consumer to power supply system.

28. The choice and placement of devices of compensation of reactive capacity in power networks is made according to the existing instruction for compensation of reactive capacity.

3. The choice of conductors on heating, the economic density of current and under the terms of crown

1. Scope

29. This Chapter of Rules extends to the choice of sections of electric conductors (the uninsulated and isolated wires, cables and tires) on heating, the economic density of current and under the terms of crown. If the section of the conductor determined by these conditions turns out less than the section required on other conditions (thermal and electrodynamic firmness in case of currents of KZ, loss and variation of tension, the mechanical durability, protection against overload), then the largest section required by these conditions shall be accepted.

2. The choice of sections of conductors on heating

30. Conductors of any appointment shall meet requirements for maximum permissible heating taking into account not only normal, but also postemergency operation, and also the modes during repair and possible neravnomernost of distribution of currents between lines, sections of tires, etc. When checking on heating the half-hour maximum of current, the greatest of average half-hour currents of this element of network is accepted.

In case of repeated and short-term and short-term operating modes of electroreceivers (with the general duration of cycle up to 10 min. and duration of the working period no more than 4 min.) as settlement current for check of section of conductors on heating the current brought to the long mode is accepted. At the same time:

1) for copper conductors with a section up to 6 mm of 2, and for aluminum conductors to 10 mm2 current is accepted, as for installations with long operating mode;

2) for copper conductors with a section more than 6 mm of 2, and for aluminum conductors more than 10 mm2 current is determined by multiplication of admissible long current by 0,875/coefficient where Tp.v. - duration of the working period expressed in relative units (inclusion duration in relation to cycle duration).

31. For short-term operating mode lasting inclusion no more than 4 min. and breaks between the inclusions sufficient for chilling of conductors to ambient temperature, the greatest admissible currents are determined by regulations of the repeated and short-term mode. Lasting inclusion more than 4 min., and also in case of breaks of insufficient duration between inclusions, the greatest admissible currents are determined, how for installations with long operating mode.

For liquidation of postemergency operation for cables up to 10 kV with paper isolation overloads within 5 days in the limits specified in the table 2 of appendix 5 to these rules are allowed.

For the cable lines which are in operation more than 15 years, overloads shall be lowered for 10%.

The overload of cable lines of 20-35 kV is not allowed.

34. Requirements to normal loadings and postemergency overloads belong to cables and connecting and trailer couplings and trailer seals established on them.

35. Zero working conductors in four-wire system of three-phase current shall have conductivity at least 50% of conductivity of phase conductors; in necessary cases it shall be increased to 100% of conductivity of phase conductors.

36. In case of determination of admissible long currents for cables, the uninsulated and isolated wires and tires, and also the coefficients specified in the table 3 of appendix 5 to these rules are applied to the tough and flexible current-conducting wires laid in the circle which temperature significantly differs from provided in tables 12-15 and 22 of appendix 5 to these rules.

3. Admissible long currents for wires, cords and cables with rubber or plastic isolation

37. Admissible long currents for wires with rubber or polyvinylchloride isolation, cords with rubber isolation and cables with rubber or plastic isolation in lead, polyvinylchloride and rubber covers are given in tables 4-11 of appendix 5 to these rules. They are accepted for temperatures: lived + 65, air +25 and the earth of +15 °C.

In case of determination of quantity of the wires laid in one pipe (or veins of the multicore conductor), the zero working conductor of four-wire system of three-phase current, and also the grounding and zero protective conductors are not taken into consideration.

The data containing in tables 4 and 5 of appendix 5 to these rules are applied irrespective of quantity of pipes and the place of their laying (in air, overlappings, the bases).

Admissible long currents for the wires and cables laid in boxes, and also in trays by bunches shall be accepted: for wires - according to tables 4 and 5 of appendix 5 to these rules, as for the wires laid in pipes for cables - according to tables 6-8, as for the cables laid in air. In case of quantity of at the same time loaded wires more than four laid in pipes, boxes and also, in trays bunches, currents for wires shall be accepted according to tables 4 and 5, as for the wires laid openly (in air), with introduction of the reducing 0,68 coefficients for 5 and 6; 0,63 for 7-9 and 0,6 for 10-12 wires.

For wires of secondary chains the reducing coefficients are not entered.

38. Admissible long currents for the wires laid in trays in case of single-row laying (not in bunches) are accepted, as for the wires laid in air.

Admissible long currents for the wires and cables laid in boxes are adopted according to tables 4-7 annexes 5 to these rules, as for the single wires and cables laid openly (in air), using the reducing coefficients specified in the table 12 of appendix 5 to these rules.

39. Admissible long currents for cables up to 35 kV with isolation from the impregnated cable paper in lead, aluminum or polyvinylchloride covers are accepted according to admissible temperatures of veins of cables:

Rated voltage, kV

to 3

6

10

20 and 35

Admissible temperature of vein of cable, °C

+80

+65

+60

+50

40. For the cables laid in the earth, admissible long currents are given in tables 13, of 16, 19-22 appendices 5 to these rules. They are accepted at the rate of laying in trench at m 0,7-1,0 depth no more than one cable at temperature of earth of +15 °C and specific resistance of the earth of 120 cm · To/W.

In case of the specific resistance of the earth different from 120 cm · To/W, it is necessary to apply the correction coefficients specified in the table 23 of appendix 5 to these rules to the current loadings specified in the tables mentioned earlier.

41. For the cables laid in water, admissible long currents are given in tables 13, of 16, of 22, 21 appendices 5 to these rules. They are accepted at the rate of the water temperature of +15 °C.

42. For the cables laid in air in and out of buildings, in case of any quantity of cables and the air temperature of +25 °C admissible long currents are given in tables 14, of 19, of 20, of 21, of 23, 24 appendices 5 to these rules.

43. Admissible long currents for the single cables laid in pipes in the earth shall be accepted, as for the same cables laid in air at temperature equal to earth temperature.

44. In case of the mixed laying of cables admissible long currents shall be accepted for section of the route with the worst refrigerating conditions if length of its more than 10 m. In the specified cases cable inserts of bigger section are applied.

45. When laying several cables in the earth (including laying in pipes) admissible long currents shall be reduced by introduction of the coefficients specified in the table 26 of appendix 5 to these rules. At the same time, reserve cables shall not be considered.

Laying of several cables in the earth with distances between them less than 10 mm in light is not allowed.

46. For oil - and gas-filled single-conductor armored cables, and also other cables of new designs admissible long currents are established by manufacturing plants.

47. Admissible long currents for the cables laid in blocks are determined by empirical formula

Формула 1 к Правилам электроустановок от 24.10.2012 №1355

I = a b with I 0,

where I0 - the admissible long current for three-vein cable of 10 kV with copper or aluminum veins determined by the table 27 of appendix 5 to these rules; and - the coefficient chosen according to the table 28 of appendix 5 depending on section and arrangement of cable in the block; b - the coefficient chosen depending on cable tension:

Rated voltage of cable, kV

To 3

6

10

B coefficient

1,09

1,05

1,0

with - the coefficient chosen depending on average daily loading of all block:

Average daily loading of Ssr.sut/Snom

1

0,85

0,7

Coefficient with

1

1,07

1,16

Reserve cables are allowed to be laid in not numbered channels of the block if they work when working cables are disconnected.

48. Admissible long currents for the cables laid in two parallel blocks of identical configuration shall decrease by multiplication by the coefficients chosen depending on distance between blocks:

Distance between blocks, mm

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Coefficient

0,85

0,89

0,91

0,93

0,95

0,96

49. Admissible long currents for uninsulated wires and the painted tires are given in tables 29-35 of appendix 5 to these rules. They are accepted at the rate of the admissible temperature of their heating of +70 °C in case of the air temperature of +25 °C.

For hollow aluminum wires of the PA500 and PA600 brands admissible long current is accepted:

Wire brand

PA500

PA6000

Current, And

1340

1680

50. In case of arrangement of tires of rectangular section flatwise the currents given in the table 33 of appendix 5 to these rules shall be reduced by 5% for tires with width of strips up to 60 mm and for 8% for tires with width of strips more than 60 mm.

51. In case of the choice of tires of big sections it is necessary to choose the most economic under the terms of handling capacity the constructive decisions providing the smallest additional losses from superficial effect and effect of proximity and the best refrigerating conditions (reduction of quantity of strips in packet, rational design of packet, use of profile tires, etc.).

52. Sections of conductors shall be checked on the economic density of current. Economically reasonable section S, mm2 is determined from ratio:

Формула 2 к Правилам электроустановок от 24.10.2012 №1355

where I - settlement current in hour of maximum of power supply system, A; Jek - the normalized value of economic density of current, And/mm 2, for the set working conditions chosen according to the table 36 of appendix 5 to these rules.

The section received as a result of the specified calculation is rounded to the next standard section. Settlement current is accepted for normal operating mode, i.e. increase in current in the postemergency and repair operation of network is not considered.

53. The choice of sections of wires of power lines of direct and alternating current of 330 kV and above, and also lines of the intersystem communications and powerful tough and flexible current-conducting wires working with large number of hours of use of maximum is made on the basis of technical and economic calculations.

54. Increase in number of lines or chains over electric utility service, necessary under the terms of reliability, for the purpose of satisfaction of economic density of current is made on the basis of technical and economic calculation. At the same time, in order to avoid increase in number of lines or chains, double exceeding of the normalized values given in the table 36 of appendix 5 to these rules is allowed.

In technical and economic calculations all attachments to the additional line, including the equipment and cameras of distributing devices on both ends of lines are considered. Also feasibility of increase in tension of the line is checked.

It is necessary to be guided by these instructions also when replacing of the existing wires with wires of bigger section or when laying additional lines for ensuring economic density of current with growth of loading. In these cases also all-in cost of all works on dismantle and installation of equipment of the line, including the cost of devices and materials shall be considered.

55. Are not subject to check on the economic density of current:

1) networks of industrial enterprises and constructions up to 1 kV in case of number of hours of use of maximum of loading of the companies to 4000-5000;

2) branches to separate electroreceivers up to 1 kV, and also lighting networks of industrial enterprises, residential and public buildings;

3) combined tires of electroinstallations and busbar within the opened and closed distributing devices of all tension;

4) the conductors going to resistors, starting rheostats, etc.;

5) networks of shoddy constructions, and also devices with service life of 3-5 years.

56. When using the table 36 of appendix 5 to these rules it is necessary to be guided by the following:

1) in case of loading maximum at night the economic density of current increases by 40%;

2) for the isolated conductors with a section of 16 mm and less economic density of current increases by 40%;

3) for lines of identical section with n the branching-off loadings the economic density of current at the beginning of the line increases in ku time, and ku is determined from expression:

Формула 3 к Правилам электроустановок от 24.10.2012 №1355

where I 1, I 2,..., In - loadings of certain sites of the line; l 1, l 2,..., ln - lengths of certain sites of the line; L - complete length of the line.

4) in case of the choice of sections of conductors for food of n of the same, mutually reserved electroreceivers (pumps of water supply, converting aggregates, etc.) from which m at the same time are in work the economic density of current increases against the values given in the table 36 of appendix of 5 these rules, to kn of times where kn is equal:

Формула 4 к Правилам электроустановок от 24.10.2012 №1355

57. Section of wires of VL of 35 kV in the rural zone feeding the lowering substations of 35/6-10 kV with transformers with regulation of tension under loading shall be chosen on the economic density of current. Settlement loading in case of the choice of sections of wires is accepted on perspective in 5 years, considering of year of input of VL in operation. Shall be applied to VL of 35 kV intended for reservation in networks of 35 kV in the rural zone minimum on it is long to admissible current of section of wires, proceeding from ensuring food of consumers of electricity in the postemergency and repair operation.

58. The choice of economic sections of open wires and veins of the cable lines having intermediate selections of capacity are made for each of sites, proceeding from the corresponding settlement currents of sites. At the same time, for the neighboring sites it is allowed to accept the identical section of wire corresponding economic for the most extended site if the difference between values of economic section for these sites is in limits of one step on scale of standard sections. Sections of wires on branches up to 1 km long are accepted same, as on VL from which the branch is made. With bigger length of branch economic section is determined by settlement loading of this branch.

59. For power lines of 6-20 kV of value of density of current, the appendices 5 to these rules given in the table 36, it is allowed to apply only when they do not cause tension variation in electric power receivers over admissible limits taking into account the applied means of regulation of tension and compensation of reactive capacity.

60. At voltage of 35 kV and above conductors shall be checked under the terms of formation of crown taking into account annual average values of density and air temperature at height of arrangement of this electroinstallation above sea level, the specified radius of the conductor, and also coefficient of not smoothness of conductors.

At the same time, the greatest intensity of the field at surface of any of conductors determined at average operational tension shall be no more 0,9 of the initial electric field strength corresponding to emergence of general crown.

Besides, check under the terms of the admissible level of radio interferences from crown is necessary for conductors.

4. The choice of electric devices and conductors under the terms of short circuit

1. General requirements

61. On the mode of short circuit (further - KZ) shall be checked:

1) In electroinstallations is higher than 1 kV:

electric devices, current-conducting wires, cables and other conductors, and also the basic and bearing designs for them;

electricity transmission air-lines in case of shock current of KZ of 50 kA and more for the prevention of whipping of wires in case of dynamic action of currents of KZ.

Besides, for lines with the split wires distances between struts of the split wires for the prevention of damage of struts and wires when whipping shall be checked.

The wires of VL equipped with devices of high-speed automatic repeated inclusion are checked also for thermal firmness.

2) In electroinstallations to 1 kV - only switchboards, current-conducting wires and power cases. Current transformers on the KZ mode are not checked;

Devices which are intended for shutdown of currents of KZ or can include short-circuited chain under the terms of the work, shall have, besides, capability to make these transactions in case of all possible currents of KZ.

KZ, resistant in case of currents, are those devices and conductors which under settlement conditions maintain impacts of these currents, without being exposed to the electric, mechanical and other destructions or deformations interfering their further normal operation.

62. On the KZ mode at voltage over 1 kV are not checked:

1) the devices and conductors protected by fuses with inserts on rated current to 60 A - on electrodynamic firmness;

2) the devices and conductors protected by fuses irrespective of their rated current and type - on thermal firmness.

The chain is considered protected by the fuse if its disconnecting capability is chosen according to requirements of these rules and it is capable to disconnect the smallest possible emergency current in this chain;

3) conductors in chains to individual electroreceivers, including to shop transformers general capacity to 2,5 MB-A and with the highest voltage up to 20 kV if at the same time following conditions are complied:

necessary extent of the reservation executed so that shutdown of the specified electroreceivers does not cause disorder of engineering procedure is provided in electric or technology part;

damage of the conductor under KZ cannot cause explosion or the fire;

replacement of the conductor without considerable difficulties is possible;

4) conductors to the individual electroreceivers specified in the subitem 3) of Item 62 of these rules and also to certain small distribution points if such electroreceivers and distribution points are irresponsible according to the destination and if damage of the conductor under KZ cannot cause explosion or the fire;

5) current transformers in chains to 20 kV feeding transformers or reaktirovanny lines in cases when the choice of transformers of current under the terms of KZ requires such overestimate of coefficients of transformation in case of which the necessary class of tochnost of the attached measuring devices cannot be provided; at the same time on the party of the highest tension in chains of power transformers it is necessary to avoid use of the transformers of current not permanent to current of KZ, and metering devices need to be attached to current transformers on the party of the lowest tension;

6) wires of VL;

7) devices and tires of chains of transformers of tension in case of their arrangement in the separate camera or behind the additional resistor which is built in safety lock or installed separately.

63. In case of the choice of the settlement scheme for determination of currents of KZ to proceed from the conditions of its long work provided for this electroinstallation and not to reckon with short-term modifications of the scheme of this electroinstallation which are not provided for long operation. Repair and postemergency operation of work of electroinstallation does not belong to short-term changes of the scheme.

The settlement scheme shall consider perspective of development of external networks and the generating sources which the considered installation, for 5 years at least from the planned term of its input in operation electrically contacts.

At the same time, it is admissible to conduct calculation of currents of KZ approximately for the initial moment of KZ.

64. As settlement type of KZ is accepted:

1) for determination of electrodynamic firmness of devices and tough tires with the supporting and supporting frameworks relating to them - three-phase KZ;

2) for determination of thermal firmness of devices and conductors - three-phase KZ; at the generating tension of power plants - three-phase or two-phase depending on what of them leads to bigger heating;

3) for the choice of devices on switching capability - on bigger of the values received for cases of three-phase and single-phase KZ on the earth (in networks with big currents of short circuit on the earth); if the switch is characterized by two values of switching capability - three-phase and single-phase - respectively on both values.

65. Settlement current of KZ is determined, proceeding from condition of damage to such point of the considered chain in which under KZ devices and conductors of this chain are in the most severe conditions. With cases of simultaneous short circuit on the earth of different phases in two different points of the scheme it is admissible not to reckon.

66. On reaktirovanny lines in the closed distributing devices the conductors and devices located to the reactor and separated the feeding combined tires (on branches from lines - from elements of the main chain) the dividing regiments, overlappings, etc., are chosen on current of KZ behind the reactor if the last is located in the same building and connection is executed by tires.

Tire branches from combined tires to the dividing shelves and insulators through passage in the last shall be chosen proceeding from KZ to the reactor.

67. When calculating thermal firmness as estimated time the amount of times received from addition of time of action of the main protection (taking into account action of APZ) established at KZ of the switch, nearest to the place, and total time of shutdown of this switch is accepted (including time of burning of arch).

In the presence of nonsensitivity zone at the main protection (on current, tension, resistance, etc.) thermal firmness needs to be checked in addition, proceeding from time of action of the protection reacting to damage to this zone, plus total time of shutdown of the switch. At the same time, as settlement current of KZ its that value which corresponds to this place of damage is accepted.

The equipment and current-conducting wires used in chains of generators by capacity of 60 MW and more and also in chains of blocks the generator - the transformer of the same capacity, shall be checked on thermal firmness, proceeding from time of passing of current of KZ 4 sec.

2. Determination of currents of short circuit for the choice of devices and conductors

68. Are not subject to check on the economic density of current:

In electroinstallations to 1 kV and above in case of determination of currents of KZ for the choice of devices and conductors and determination of impact on the bearing designs to proceed from the following:

1) all sources participating in food of the considered point of KZ work along with rated load;

2) all synchronous machines have automatic regulators of tension and devices of forsirovka of excitement;

3) short circuit comes in such timepoint in case of which current of KZ will have the greatest value;

4) the electromotive forces of all power supplies match on phase;

5) the settlement tension of each step is accepted 5% above the rated voltage of network;

6) influence on currents of KZ of the synchronous compensators attached to this network, synchronous and asynchronous electric motors shall be considered. Influence of asynchronous electric motors on currents of KZ is not considered in case of capacity of electric motors to 100 kW in unit if electric motors are separated KZ place by one step of transformation, and also in case of any capacity if they are separated KZ place by two or more steps of transformation or if current from them can arrive to KZ place only through those elements through which there passes the main current of KZ from network and which have the essential resistance (lines, transformers, etc.).

69. In electroinstallations higher than 1 kV as settlement resistance inductive resistance of electrical machines, power transformers and autotransformers, reactors, air and cable lines, and also current-conducting wires are accepted. Active resistance is considered only for VL with wires of small sections and steel wires, and also for extended cable networks of small sections with big active resistance.

70. In electroinstallations to 1 kV as settlement resistance inductive and active resistance of all elements of chain, including active resistance of transitional contacts of chain are accepted. It is admissible to neglect resistance of one type (active or inductive) if at the same time the complete resistance of chain decreases no more than by 10%.

71. In case of food of power networks to 1 kV from the lowering transformers when calculating currents of KZ to recognize condition that tension brought to the transformer is invariable and equal to its rated voltage.

72. Elements of the chain protected by the fuse with current-limiting action are checked for electrodynamic firmness on the greatest instant value of current of KZ passed by safety lock.

3. The choice of conductors and insulators, check of the bearing designs under the terms of dynamic action of currents of short circuit

73. The efforts operating on tough tires and which are transferred by them to isolation centers and supporting tough designs to calculate on the greatest instant value of current of three-phase KZ iy taking into account shift between currents in phases and without mechanical oscillations of tire design. Mechanical oscillations of tires and tire designs can be in some cases considered.

The force impulses operating on flexible conductors and supporting them insulators, conclusions and designs are calculated on mean square (during passing) to current of two-phase short circuit between the next phases. In case of the split conductors and flexible current-conducting wires interaction of currents of KZ in conductors of the same phase is determined by the operating value of current of three-phase KZ.

Flexible current-conducting wires shall be checked for whipping.

74. The mechanical efforts found calculation according to the 110th which are transferred under KZ by tough tires to basic and isolation centers through passage shall make no more than 60% of the corresponding warranty values of the smallest destroying effort in case of use of single insulators; in case of the coupled basic insulators - no more than 100% of the destroying effort of one insulator.

In case of use of tires of compound profiles (multiband, from two channels, etc.) mechanical tension is as the arithmetic amount of tension from interaction of phases and interaction of elements of each tire among themselves.

The largest mechanical tension in material of tough tires shall not exceed 0,7 of temporary resistance to gap.

4. The choice of conductors under the terms of heating in case of short circuit

75. Temperature of heating of conductors under KZ shall be not above the following maximum permissible values, °C:

Tires:

 

copper

300

aluminum

200

steel, not having direct connection with

400

steel with direct accession to devices

300

Cables with the paper impregnated isolation on tension, kV:

 

to 10

200

20-220

125

Cables and the isolated wires with copper and aluminum veins and isolation:

 

polyvinylchloride and rubber

150

Polyethylene

120

Copper uninsulated wires give to drink tyazheniye, N/mm2:

 

less than 20

250

20 and more

200

Aluminum uninsulated wires in case of tyazheniye, N/mm2:

 

less than 10

200

10 and more

160

Aluminum part of stalealyuminevy wires

200

76. Check of cables on heating by currents of KZ when it is required according to Items 60 and 61 of these rules, shall be made for:

1) single cables of one construction length, proceeding from KZ at the beginning of cable;

2) single cables with step sections on length, proceeding from KZ at the beginning of each site of new section;

3) bunch from two and cables more connected in parallel, proceeding from KZ it is direct behind bunch (on end-to-end current of KZ).

77. When checking on thermal firmness of devices and conductors of the lines equipped with devices of high-speed APV increase in heating because of total increase in duration of passing of current of KZ across such lines shall be considered.

The split wires of VL when checking on heating in the conditions of KZ are considered as one total wire of section.

5. The choice of devices on switching capability

78. Switches higher than 1 kV are chosen:

1) on the disconnecting capability including parameters of the recovered tension;

2) on the including capability. At the same time, the switches of generators installed on the side of generating tension are checked only for nonsynchronous inclusion in the conditions of antiphase.

79. Safety locks are chosen on the disconnecting capability. At the same time, as settlement current the operating value of periodic component of initial current of KZ without current-limiting capability of safety locks is accepted.

80. Switches of loading and korotkozamykatel are chosen on the maximum permissible current arising in case of inclusion on KZ.

81. Separators and disconnectors are not required to be checked on switching capability under KZ. When using separators and disconnectors for shutdown - inclusion of not loaded lines, not loaded transformers or equalization currents of parallel chains separators and disconnectors are checked on the mode of such shutdown - inclusions.

5. Accounting of the electric power and control of capacity

1. General requirements

82. Accounting of the active electric power provides determination of amount of energy:

1) developed by generators of power plants;

2) consumed for needs of power plants and substations own and economic (separately);

3) released to directly wholesale buyers and consumers on the lines departing from tires of power plants;

4) transferred to other power supply systems and the states or received from them;

5) released to directly wholesale buyers and consumers from power network.

83. Besides, accounting of the active electric power provides opportunity:

1) determinations of receipt of the electric power in power networks of different classes of tension of power supply system;

2) creation of balances of the electric power by business entities in borders of balance sheet accessory;

3) control of observance by consumers of the modes set by it - consumption and balance of the electric power.

84. Control of capacity provides measurement (in real time, with the set interval), accumulating, storage and transfer on the top level of information directorate about active capacity:

1) developed by generators of power plants;

2) consumed for own and economic needs of power plants and substations;

3) released to directly wholesale buyers and consumers on the lines departing from tires of power plant it is direct to consumers;

4) transferred to other power supply systems and the states or received from them;

5) released to directly wholesale buyers and consumers from power network.

At the same time opportunity is provided:

creation of balances of capacity by business entities in borders of balance sheet accessory and subjects of the wholesale market of the electric power;

control of observance by subjects of the wholesale market of the modes of consumption and balance of capacity.

85. Accounting of the reactive electric power provides possibility of determination of quantity of the reactive electric power received by the consumer from the electrosupplying organization or transferred to it if according to these data calculations or control of observance of the set operating mode of the compensating devices are made.

2. Items of installation of means of accounting of the electric power

86. Commercial counters (including being part of systems of commercial accounting) need to be established on limit of the Section of network of the electrosupplying organization and the consumer and in points of purchase and sale of the electric power by subjects of electricity market.

87. Commercial counters of the active electric power at power plant shall be established:

1) for each generator so that all electric power developed by the generator was considered;

2) for all connections of tires of generating tension on which change of the direction of flow of the electric power is possible, - bidirectional electric power meter;

3) for intersystem and interstate power lines - the bidirectional electric power meter considering the released and received electric power;

4) for lines of all classes of tension departing from tires of power plants and belonging to consumers.

For lines to 10 kV departing from tires of power plants it is necessary to execute chains of accounting, assembly of clips, and also to provide places for meter installation;

5) for all transformers and lines feeding tires of the main tension (it is higher than 1 kV) the own needs (ON).

Counters are installed on the side of the highest tension; if SN transformers of power plant are powered from tires of 35 kV and above or branch from blocks at the voltage over 10 kV, meter installation on the party of the lowest tension of transformers is allowed;

6) for lines of the economic needs and foreign consumers attached to the SN distributing device of power plants;

7) for each bypass switch or for the shinosoyedinitelny (mezhdusektsionny) switch used as bypass for the accessions having commercial accounting - bidirectional electric power meter.

At the power plants equipped by the automated systems of commercial accounting, the specified systems are used both for centralized commercial, and for technical accounting of the electric power.

88. At power plants capacity to 1 MW commercial counters of the active electric power are allowed to be established only for generators and SN transformers or only for generators and the departing lines.

89. Commercial counters of the active electric power on substation of power supply system are established:

1) for each departing power line belonging to consumers;

2) for intersystem power lines - the bidirectional electric power meter considering the released and received electric power in the presence of branches from these the line in other power supply systems - the bidirectional electric power meter considering the received and released electric power on inputs in substation of these power supply systems,

3) on SN transformers;

4) for the line of the economic needs or foreign consumers (the settlement, etc.) attached to tires of SN;

5) for each bypass switch or for the shinosoyedinitelny (mezhdusektsionny) switch used as bypass for the accessions having commercial accounting - bidirectional electric power meter.

For lines to 10 kV in all cases chains of accounting, assembly of clips shall be executed, and also places for meter installation are provided.

90. Commercial counters of the active electric power on the substation belonging to the consumer are established:

1) on input (the reception end) of power line in substation of the consumer in the absence of electric communication with other substation of power supply system or other consumer at the feeding tension;

2) on the party of the highest tension of transformers of substation of the consumer in the presence of electric communication with other substation of power supply system or availability of other consumer at the feeding tension.

Meter installation on the party of the lowest tension of transformers in cases when the current transformers chosen on current of KZ or according to characteristics of differential protection of tires do not provide the required accuracy of accounting of the electric power and also when the available built-in transformers of current have no 0,5 accuracy class winding is allowed.

In case installation of additional sets of transformers of current from the lowest tension of power transformers for turning on of commercial counters is impossible (KRU, KRUN) the organization of accounting on the departing lines of 6-10 kV is allowed.

In the presence at the consumer of two or more Items of accounting, and also at the total power consumption more than 1 MW it is necessary to apply the automated system of commercial accounting of the electric power;

3) on the party of average and lowest tension of power transformers if on the party of the highest tension use of measuring transformers is not required for other purposes;

4) on SN transformers if the electric power released for own needs is not considered by other counters; at the same time, counters need to be established from the lowest tension;

5) on limit of the Section of the main consumer and foreign consumer (subsubscriber) if from the line or transformers of consumers still the foreign consumer who is on separate balance eats.

For consumers of each tariff group separate commercial counters are established.

91. In case of application for commercial accounting of the commercial counters which are at the same time considering active and reactive energy, installation of separate reactive power meters is not required.

In case of application for commercial accounting of active energy of the microprocessor counters which are at the same time considering reactive energy, installation of separate reactive power meters is not required. In other cases counters of the reactive electric power are established:

1) on the same elements of the scheme on which counters of the active electric power for the consumers who are calculated for the electric power taking into account the reactive capacity permitted to use are established;

2) on accessions of sources of reactive capacity of consumers if on them calculation for the electric power issued in network of power supply system is made or control of the set operating mode is exercised.

If from the consumer, with the consent of power supply system issue of the reactive electric power in network of power supply system is made, the bidirectional counter of the reactive electric power in those elements of the scheme where the commercial counter of the active electric power is established is established. In all other cases the irreversive counter of the reactive electric power is established.

3. Requirements to commercial counters

92. The electric power meter used as commercial shall be certified and included in the register of the State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Each established commercial counter shall have on the device of fixture of casing, seal with the verificator's brand, and on tightening cover or other device excluding access to number of clips of the electric meter, seal of the electrosupplying and (or) power transferring organization.

On again established counters there shall be checking seals with prescription no more than 12 months.

93. Accounting of the active and reactive electric power of three-phase current shall be made by means of three-phase counters.

94. The class of accuracy of counters of commercial accounting of the active and reactive electric power for different objects of accounting is given in the table 37 of appendix 5 to these rules.

The general error of complex of commercial accounting, including errors of counters, transformers of current and tension, taking into account power failure in wires according to Items 94 - 103 these rules, power factor of loading, shall be no more provided in the table 38 of appendix 5 to these rules.

4. Accounting using measuring transformers

95. The class of accuracy of transformers of current and tension for connection of counters of commercial accounting of the electric power shall be the appendix 5 to these rules which is not below included in the table 39.

For connection of measuring devices, counters of technical accounting it is necessary to use transformers of current and tension of class of accuracy of 0,5.

96. Use of transformers of current with the overestimated transformation coefficient (under the terms of electrodynamic and thermal firmness or protection of tires) is allowed if in case of maximum demand of accession current in secondary winding of the transformer of current constitutes at least 40% of rated current of the counter, and in case of the minimum operational load - at least 5%.

97. Accession of current windings of counters to secondary windings of transformers of current is carried out separately from chains of protection and together with electric devices.

It is allowed to make joint accession of current chains if their separate accession requires installation of additional transformers of current, and joint accession does not lead to decrease in class of accuracy and reliability of chains of the transformers of current serving for accounting and provides necessary characteristics of devices relay are sewn up.

Use of intermediate transformers of current for turning on of commercial counters is forbidden.

98. Loading of secondary windings of measuring transformers which counters join shall not exceed nominal rates.

Section and length of wires and cables in chains of tension of commercial counters shall be chosen such that losses of tension in these chains constituted no more 0,25 of % of rated voltage in case of food from transformers of tension of class of accuracy 0,5 no more 0,5 of % in case of food of 1,0 accuracy class tension transformers. For providing this requirement application of separate cables from tension transformers to counters is allowed.

Losses of tension from tension transformers to counters of technical accounting shall constitute no more 0,5 of % of rated voltage.

Counters of electrical energy of interstate VL, VL 110 of kV and above, generators, transformers 10 MB-A shall be connected to tension transformers by separate cables above (on group of counters of this section RU or separate cable for counters of each accession).

99. For connection of commercial counters on power lines of 110 kV and above installation of additional transformers of current is allowed (in the absence of secondary windings for connection of counters, for ensuring operation of the counter in required class of accuracy, under the terms of load of secondary windings, etc.).

100. Both single-phase, and three-phase transformers of tension, including four - and five-rod, applied to isolation control can be used to food of chains of counters.

Chains of accounting are removed on independent assemblies of clips or section in general series of clips. In the absence of assemblies with clips it is necessary to establish test blocks.

Clips shall provide zakorachivaniye of secondary chains of transformers of current, shutdown of current chains of the counter and chains of tension in each phase of counters in case of their replacement or check, and also turning on of the model counter without detachment of wires and cables.

The design of assemblies and boxes of clips of commercial counters shall provide possibility of their sealing.

101. The tension transformers used only for accounting and protected on the party of the highest tension by safety locks shall have control of integrity of safety locks.

102. In case of several systems of tires and connection of each transformer of tension only to the system of tires the device for switching of chains of counters of each accession to transformers of tension of the corresponding systems of tires shall be provided.

103. The design of lattices and doors of cameras of substation in which safety locks are installed on the side of the highest tension of the transformers of tension used for commercial accounting shall provide possibility of their sealing.

Handles of drives of disconnectors of the transformers of tension used for commercial accounting shall have devices for their sealing.

5. Meter installation and electrical wiring to them

104. Counters shall be placed in dry rooms, easily available to servicing, in rather free and not constrained for work place with temperature in winter time it is not below 0th °C.

Counters of common industrial execution are not allowed to be established in rooms where on working conditions temperature is often exceeded to +40 °C, and also in rooms with hostile environment.

Placement of counters in not heated rooms and corridors of distributing devices of power plants and substations, and also in cases of outside installation is allowed. At the same time, their stationary winterization for winter time by means of the warming cases, caps with heating of air in them electric lamp or heating element for providing in cap of positive temperature shall be provided, but it is not above +20 °C.

105. The counters of common industrial execution intended for accounting of the electric power are established in rooms with the ambient temperature which is in the range designated by manufacturing plant. In the absence of such rooms counters are located in special cases where necessary temperature during the whole year shall be maintained.

106. Counters shall be established in cases, cameras complete distributing devices (KRU, KRUN), on panels, boards, in niches, on the walls having tough design.

Fixture of counters on plastic or metal guards is allowed.

Height from floor to box of clips of counters shall be in m 0,8-1,7 limits. Height of less 0,8 of m is allowed, but m 0,4 suffices.

107. In places where there is danger of mechanical damages of counters or their pollution, or in the places available to strangers (passes, staircases, etc.), for counters the locked case with window at the level of the dial shall be provided. Similar cases shall be established also for joint placement of counters and transformers of current in case of accomplishment of accounting on the party of the lowest tension (on input at consumers).

108. Designs and the sizes of cases, niches, guards, etc. shall provide convenient access to clips of counters and transformers of current. Besides, the possibility of convenient meter replacement and its installation with bias no more than 1 ° shall be provided. The design of its fixture shall provide possibility of installation and renting of the counter from the face.

109. Electrical wiring to counters shall meet the requirements provided in Chapter 15 of these rules.

110. In electrical wiring availability the ration is not allowed to settlement counters.

111. Sections of the wires and cables attached to counters shall be accepted according to Item 837 of these rules.

112. In case of installation of electrical wiring for connection of counters of direct inclusion about counters it is necessary to leave the ends of wires at least 120 mm long. Isolation or cover of zero wire on length of 100 mm in front of the counter shall have distinctive coloring.

113. For safe installation and replacement of counters in networks up to 380 V the possibility of shutdown of the counter established to it at distance no more than 10 m by the switching device or safety locks shall be provided.

Removal of tension shall be provided from all phases attached to the counter.

The current transformers used for connection of counters at the voltage up to 380 V shall be established after switching devices in the direction of flow of capacity.

114. Grounding (zeroing) of counters and transformers of current shall be carried out according to requirements of Chapter 7 of these rules. At the same time, the grounding and zero protective conductors from counters and transformers of current up to 1 kV before the next assembly of clips shall be copper.

115. In the presence on subject to several accessions with separate accounting of the electric power on panels of counters there shall be texts of names of accessions.

6. Technical accounting

116. On thermal and nuclear power plants with aggregates (blocks) which are not equipped with information or managing computer systems stationary are established or to use inventory figurative counters of technical accounting in system of the joint venture to possibility of calculations of technical and economic indicators. At the same time, meter installation of the active electric power shall be made in chains of the electric motors which are powered from tires of the distributing device of the main tension (it is higher than 1 kV) own needs, and in chains of all transformers which are powered from these tires.

117. At power plants with cross communications (having general steam line) technical capability of installation (under operating conditions) of the counters of technical accounting of the active electric power used for control of correctness of operation of commercial generating counters shall be provided on the party of generating tension of the raising transformers.

118. Counters of the active electric power for technical accounting are established on substations of 35 kV and above: on the parties of average and lowest tension of power transformers; on each departing power line of 6 kV and above, the power transferring organization which is on balance.

Technical accounting of the reactive electric power is organized on the parties of average and lowest tension of power transformers of substations of 35 kV and above. In case of application for accounting of the active electric power of microprocessor counters installation of separate reactive power meters is not required.

119. At the companies technical capability of installation (under operating conditions) stationary or use of inventory figurative counters for control of observance of limits of expense of the electric power by workshops, processing lines, separate power-intensive aggregates, for determination of expense of the electric power per unit of products or semifinished product is provided.

Meter installation of technical (control) accounting on input of the company is allowed if commercial account with this company is kept on the counters established on substations or power plants of the power supplying organization.

On installation and removal of counters of technical accounting at the companies of permission of the power supplying organization it is not required.

120. Devices of technical accounting at the companies (counters and measuring transformers) shall be under authority of consumers and 92 and 93 these rules shall meet requirements Items 91 (except for requirements about availability of seal of the power supplying organization).

121. The class of accuracy of counters and devices of technical accounting of the active electric power shall be no more 0,5. For electroinstallations by capacity less than 1 MB-A are allowed use of devices of technical accounting of class of accuracy of 1,0.

Classes of accuracy of counters and devices of technical accounting of the reactive electric power are allowed to be chosen one step lower than the corresponding class of accuracy of counters of commercial accounting of the active electric power.

6. Measurements of electrical quantities

1. General requirements

122. All measuring instruments shall be allowed for use in the Republic of Kazakhstan in the procedure established by the law. Measuring instruments of electrical quantities shall meet the following main requirements:

1) the class of accuracy of measuring devices shall be no more 2,5;

2) classes of accuracy of measuring shunts, additional resistors, transformers and converters shall be no more provided in the table 40 of appendix 5 to these rules;

3) limits of measurement of devices shall be chosen taking into account possible greatest long variations of the measured sizes from nominal rates.

123. Installation of measuring devices shall be made in Items from where control is exercised.

On substations and hydroelectric power stations without permanent watch of operation personnel it is allowed not to establish the stationary showing devices, at the same time places for connection of figurative devices by specially trained personnel shall be provided.

124. Measurements on power lines of 110 kV and above, and also on generators and transformers shall be made continuously.

The set of the showing devices is allowed to perform measurements "on challenge" on general for several accessions (except for specified in the first paragraph), and also to apply other means of centralized control.

125. In case of installation of the registering devices in operational contour of control center it is allowed not to establish the showing devices for continuous measurement of the same sizes.

126. Measurement of current shall be performed in chains of all tension where it is necessary for systematic control of engineering procedure or the equipment.

127. Measurement of direct current shall be performed in chains:

1) generators of direct current and power converters;

2) rechargeable batteries, charging, subcharging and digit devices;

Warning!!!

This is not a full text of document! Document shown in Demo mode!

If you have active License, please Login, or get License for Full Access.

With Full access you can get: full text of document, original text of document in Russian, attachments (if exist) and see History and Statistics of your work.

Get License for Full Access Now

Disclaimer! This text was translated by AI translator and is not a valid juridical document. No warranty. No claim. More info

Effectively work with search system

Database include more 50000 documents. You can find needed documents using search system. For effective work you can mix any on documents parameters: country, documents type, date range, teams or tags.
More about search system

Get help

If you cannot find the required document, or you do not know where to begin, go to Help section.

In this section, we’ve tried to describe in detail the features and capabilities of the system, as well as the most effective techniques for working with the database.

You also may open the section Frequently asked questions. This section provides answers to questions set by users.

Search engine created by SojuzPravoInform LLC. UI/UX design by Intelliants.