Unofficial translation. According to the license (c) Informtekhnologiya Ltd.
of September 5, 2013 No. 439-VII
About approval of the Nation-wide target scientific and technical space program of Ukraine for 2013-2017
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine decides:
1. Approve the Nation-wide target scientific and technical space program of Ukraine for 2013-2017 it (is applied).
2. To the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine:
during preparation of the bill on the Government budget of Ukraine for the corresponding year to provide assignment for implementation of the actions determined by the Nation-wide target scientific and technical space program of Ukraine for 2013-2017, in full with their reference to the protected budget expenses;
provide control of realization of tasks of the Program and annually till April 1 to inform the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on condition of its accomplishment.
President of Ukraine
Approved by the Law of Ukraine of September 5, 2013 No. 439-VII
Ensuring development of modern space technologies in Ukraine is important factor which determines the strategic place of the state in the world.
Accomplishment of space programs for years of independence gave the chance to resolve immediate problems of development of space activities, to keep scientific and potential production for the benefit of national economy, safety and defense, to enter the international space market with own products and services, to integrate Ukraine into the international space community, to create bases of the domestic market of space services, to perform the first steps on the way to commercialization of space activities.
At the same time influence of space activities on the solution of topical issues of scientific and technical, social and economic, ecological, cultural and educational development of society, ensuring national security and defense and ensuring realization of geopolitical interests of the state does not correspond to the capacity of the space area.
The problem requiring permission is the considerable disproportion between the level of space potential and its influence on results of the solution of urgent nation-wide and public tasks.
The purpose of the Program consists in increase in efficiency of use of space potential for the solution of urgent tasks of social and economic, ecological, cultural, information and scientific and educational development of society, ensuring national security and defense, protection of geopolitical interests of the state.
Three versions of the problem resolution which provide are possible:
the first - preserving the available approach to budget financing of space activities that will give the chance partially to satisfy the public needs for the sphere of remote sensing of Earth, satellite navigation and telecommunication services, to partially provide presence of Ukraine in the world market of space services and participation in accomplishment of the international programs providing carrying out basic space researches to perform separate applied scientific works on creation of perspective samples of the missile and space equipment;
the second - significant increase in amount of the state support that will give the chance to provide large-scale deployment of space watch system of Earth and geophysical monitoring of "Sech", implementation of national telecommunication and scientific projects, participation in carrying out the international researches of space in the peace purposes (in particular, participation of domestic astronauts-researchers in space experiments on the surface of the Moon), accomplishment of scientific and educational programs, creations of the missile and space equipment, providing competitiveness of potential production, but does not consider financial opportunities of the state;
third, optimum - enhancement of procedure for granting of the state support, ensuring investment appeal of space activities and pro rata attraction of extrabudgetary funds that will give the chance to create favorable conditions for development of space technologies, to create the domestic market of space services and to increase the level of the export potential of the state.
The problem is provided to be permitted by enhancement of the mechanism of forming of the state order, implementation of state private partnership and ensuring investment appeal of space activities as a result:
satisfactions of public needs for the sphere of remote sensing of Earth, and also satellite navigation and telecommunication services;
expansions of presence of domestic enterprises in the world market of space services, ensuring access in space;
carrying out scientific space research, applied scientific research concerning creation of perspective samples of the missile and space equipment and advanced technologies, implementation of prestigious national projects, and also accomplishment of scientific educational programs;
accelerations of rates of development of the missile and space equipment and increase in its competitiveness;
deepenings of international cooperation.
Need of financing of the Program from the government budget is caused by the fact that:
space technologies and space information are important component of means of accomplishment of nation-wide tasks for ensuring sustainable development, safety and defense of the state, increase in its scientific and technical potential;
the level of development of the missile and space equipment determines the strategy of the state, its opportunity to create necessary means of control, and also to provide independent access to space;
development of space technologies is one of the most effective remedies of stimulation of development of high-tech fields of national economy, the determining factor of its competitiveness;
implementation of space activities is powerful factor of intensification of international cooperation, the instrument of integration of the state to the European structures, means of acquisition of the status of the regional leader by Ukraine.
The main objectives of the Program are:
- ensuring development of space technologies and their integration to the real sector of national economy and the sphere of homeland security and defense:
- implementation of remote sensing of Earth from space;
- enhancement of space systems of telecommunication and navigation;
- implementation of space activities for the benefit of homeland security and defense;
- carrying out scientific space research;
- enhancement of the missile and space equipment and technologies of its production:
- creation of space complexes;
- providing industrially technological to development;
- deepening of international cooperation.
The passport of the Program is given in appendix 1, the list of tasks and actions for their realization with determination of terms of accomplishment, amounts and sources of financing is given in appendix 2. Stages of accomplishment of research and development works are determined according to national standards.
Ensuring development of space technologies and their integration to the real sector of national economy and the sphere of homeland security and defense is directed to satisfaction of public needs for the sphere of remote sensing of Earth, satellite navigation and telecommunication services by implementation of achievements of space activities to the real sector of national economy for permission of urgent problems of subjects of economic, management and scientific activities, strengthening of homeland security and defense.
Accomplishment of task "Implementation of remote sensing of Earth" will give the chance to satisfy the public needs for the sphere of remote sensing of Earth by expansion in orbit of the spacecraft of observation of Earth and creations of effective land system of use of the space data necessary for ensuring space monitoring of environmental management, and also control of the crisis phenomena of natural and technogenic nature for the purpose of minimization of negative consequences for the surrounding environment.
Start into orbit of the spacecraft "Sech-2-1" which will provide the global overview of the Earth's surface in the optical range with spatial distinction of 8 meters is provided. It will give the chance up to standard to provide applied use of the winter crops this for assessment of condition, determinations of specific structure of the woods, remote control of snow cover, classification of substylish surface by integumentary elements of landscape, search of oil and gas deposits, identifications of the forest and steppe fires and so forth. Use of information obtained from the spacecraft will also give the chance to conduct scientific research for the purpose of enhancement of forecasting methods of productivity of wheat, assessment of condition of water ecotones, monitoring of rainfall, impact assessments of geodynamic factors on ecological condition of the urbanized territories, search of oil and gas on waterless valley, complex monitoring of water areas of the Black and Azov seas, control of parameters of optical technical means of remote sensing in flight.
Start of the spacecraft of remote sensing is provided to be performed the carrier rocket of national production "Cyclone-4" from the starting center of Alkantar (the Federal Republic Brazil). In view of provisions of the Law of Ukraine "About insurance", for protection of valuable interests of the state risks insurance, connected with preparation of the spacecraft for start at the spaceport, start and operation in space is provided.
The program provides also creation of optical space system with spatial distinction of 2,5 of meter Sech-2M (start is provided in 2018), and also accomplishment of the initial stages of works concerning creation of the space Sech-3P system (start is provided in 2020) equipped with the modern radar with the synthesized antenna aperture. The Sech-2M spacecraft is the advanced Sech-2 spacecraft, and its creation will give the chance to significantly improve technical characteristics of the Sech system. The Sech-3P spacecraft will provide monitoring of substylish surface irrespective of weather conditions that for geographic latitudes of Ukraine is extremely important. That such spacecraft in the state is developed for the first time, creation of the radar, carrying out its comprehensive testing, and also forming of technical requirements to spacecraft platform is provided.
Creation of the perspective onboard optical scanner of high spatial distinction for spacecrafts will give the chance to reach world-class indicators of spatial distinction and to provide effective permission of number of special tasks concerning control of the surrounding environment. At the same time complex use of pictures of different spatial distinction considerably will increase efficiency of accomplishment of tasks of monitoring of the surrounding environment. Start of the spacecraft equipped with such scanner is provided to be provided during accomplishment of the following space program.
Technologies of creation of spacecrafts of high spatial distinction (in optical and in radio-frequency the ranges) have prospect of demand in the world market of space services therefore their development is urgent.
At the present stage of development of space technologies multiposition radar-tracking systems give the chance to receive spatial images of the substylish Earth's surface which opens new prospects during interpretation and practical use of data (for example, creation of spatial district maps). For development of this advanced technology creation of model sample of the bistatic radar and carrying out complex of its ground tests is provided. This technology also has prospect of demand in the world market of space services, and its development is urgent task for development of the space equipment.
For the purpose of ensuring effective use of satellite data development and deployment of industrial technologies concerning their processing for receipt of results of the confirmed reliability is provided. With respect thereto the corresponding normative legislation will be developed and metrological support of components of system of receipt of remote data is provided in the way: creations of the control and calibrating ground (for control of parameters of technical means of remote sensing in flight), developments and deployments of methods of metrological support of processes and technical means of acceptance, accumulating, processing and interpretation of data of remote sensing with use of test grounds (for calibration and validation of data). It is provided that implementation of the specified actions will provide transition from mainly demonstration operational stage of data of remote sensing to stage of their industrial use. It will give the chance to legitimate results of processing and interpretation of data of remote sensing.
The broad international cooperation extremely important for development of the sphere of space activities gives the chance to optimize expenses on creation of the space equipment that at the present stage of formation of the state is very urgent. Accomplishment of the international programs in the sphere of remote sensing together with the Russian Federation, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, member countries of the European Union and other states will give opportunity to create virtual group of spacecrafts in orbit and to considerably expand possibilities of use of space information due to data exchange that is urgent for all countries, especially during monitoring of the crisis phenomena in the surrounding environment.
Feature of space activities is need of expenditure of considerable means without essential economic effect. At the same time tendencies of development of the world market of space services testify to the urgent need for comprehensive commercialization of all its components. In view of it, implementation of actions for creation of the domestic market of space services by forming of system of distribution of data, carrying out preparation and retraining of specialists in remote sensing of Earth by request of the interested central executive bodies (on free basis) and subjects of managing is provided (on commercial bases). The companies which will enter the domestic market of space services in subsequent will have opportunity to diversify sources of financing of the activities in the international market of space services, and, therefore, will increase amount of contributions to the budget.
Task performance "Enhancement of space systems of telecommunication and navigation" will promote forming of common information space of the state (due to development of means of space communication and broadcasting with use of the national Swan spacecraft in geostationary orbit), and also will provide increase in efficiency of functioning of transport system of the state (due to implementation of satellite navigation and geoinformation technologies).
The national satellite communication system is backbone factor which gives the chance to create on its basis of number of services (television broadcasting platforms, telecommunication networks and so forth). Besides, during creation of this system it is provided to realize additional opportunities for the purpose of entry into the regional markets of communication of Europe and Africa. Functioning of system will provide provision of considerable part of the population of Ukraine of high-quality services of television broadcasting (including high definition), and also services of mobile television broadcasting and reservation of corporate telecommunication networks.
Further development of System of coordinate and hour and navigation providing with use of information obtained from the GLONASS foreign global navigation satellite systems (Russian Federation), GPS (USA), Galileo (European Union) is provided.
Considering that for ensuring acceptable level of errors of determination of coordinates most of users of these systems use land networks of the control adjusting stations with distribution of the adjusting information land and satellite links, it is provided to perform actions for further development in the state of these networks at two levels: national - for receipt of submeter level of errors and regional - for receipt of centimetric level of errors.
Provided by the Program of application of the Ukrainian stations in European (EGNOS) and Russian (SDKM) satellite functional amendments of the global navigation satellite systems with distribution of data of System of coordinate and hour and navigation providing on the basis of international standards will give the chance to make use of the advanced information technologies regulation of everyday life of citizens of Ukraine.
Besides, it is provided to create the integrated multipurpose Control system and the analysis of space situation which will provide monitoring of space objects with use of radar, quantum and optical and optical-electronic means (for the purpose of search and observation of fragments of space debris), determination and forecasting of orbits of spacecrafts, forecasting of time and areas of fall of potentially dangerous space objects, the solution of tasks of special nature.
For the purpose of increase in efficiency of functioning of the Control system and the analysis of space situation its retrofitting by modern land radar station with multibeam digital antenna lattices and creation of multiposition land complex of observation of space objects is provided further in the optical range. For the first time during independence all quantum and optical and optical-electronic means which are available in the state will be for this purpose used.
The created Control system and the analysis of space situation is source of strategic information on activities of the international commonwealth in space and one of elements of safety and defense of the state.
Task performance "Implementation of space activities for the benefit of homeland security and defense" will promote ensuring long-term interests of the state in the sphere of homeland security and defense due to development of space technologies of defensive and dual purpose.
Considering that one of the main tendencies of modern development of military science is informatization, implementation of actions for essential increase in its level in state bodies which perform powers in the sphere of homeland security and defense, especially during accomplishment of operational tasks is provided. It is provided to be reached due to control of space, satellite communication and navigation, and also performance of works on equipment of military and special divisions the modern domestic equipment in which information of space systems is used.
Task performance "Carrying out scientific space research" will provide acceleration of scientific progress by carrying out scientific space research mainly with the assistance of the Ukrainian scientists in the international programs for space research in the peace purposes and initiation of implementation of prestigious domestic scientific space projects, accomplishment of applied scientific research concerning creation of perspective samples of the missile and space equipment and advanced technologies, developments of scientific educational programs.
Development of those directions of space researches which on condition of broad international cooperation give the chance to receive the results corresponding to modern world level is priority. First of all it researches which are conducted by schools of sciences in the sphere of the solar and terrestrial communications, astrophysics, space biology, materials science which historically developed in Ukraine.
In the modern world forming of adequate answers to the challenges connected with global changes of the surrounding environment, deterioration in ecological situation, and also natural and technogenic catastrophes is task, vital for society. Important role in these processes is played by influence factor of "space weather" (or solar and terrestrial communications) on the live and lifeless world of Earth. In view of it, the considerable attention is paid to research of "space weather" in world science. In Ukraine historically there was world-class school of sciences on research of "space weather" which initiates carrying out the international experiment Ionosat concerning research of characteristics of spatial distribution of electromagnetic parameters of near-earth plasma, in particular for the purpose of search of its adequate responses on influence of the factors preceding earthquakes. The first stage of this experiment under the name "Potential" is realized onboard the Sech-2 spacecraft. Realization of the second stage under the name "Ionosat-mikro" is provided to be executed onboard specially created scientific Mikrosat-m spacecraft (start by the Cyclone-4 rocket in 2014). The third (main) stage of experiment - "Ionosat-standart" will be realized with use of group from three MIKROSAT-S spacecrafts during accomplishment of the following space program. In view of considerable interest of the world scientific community in space experiment Ionosat, its realization will give the chance to increase prestige of the Ukrainian science at world level, will promote integration of the Ukrainian scientists into world system of space scientific research, will provide experiments at the initiative of domestic scientists investment appeal.
For the purpose of accomplishment of the obligations of Ukraine determined by the Program of the Russian-Ukrainian cooperation in the sphere of research and use of space in the peace purposes for 2012-2016 participation of the Ukrainian scientists in carrying out basic scientific research is provided (the SPEKTR-R projects (Radioastron), "SPEKTR-RG", "SPEKTR-UF", "Gamma-400", "Range m" (Millimetron) and so forth). Participation in carrying out these researches will give the chance to use the unique land space infrastructure which is available in Ukraine for control of scientific spacecrafts, adoptions of information from spacecrafts which research far space, radar-locations of planets of the Solar system (including for the purpose of ensuring landing to them automatic spacecrafts). This Program provides carrying out number of the biological experiments initiated by the Ukrainian school of sciences on research of biology of space and directed to studying of developments of organisms in the conditions of microgravity, search of origins of life. In view of the strategic prospects of expansion of mankind on other planets of the Solar system and in the remote prospect to other star worlds, biological researches are urgent and have world priorities.
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