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THE FRAMEWORK CONVENTION OF UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION

of May 9, 1992

About climate change

Parties of this Convention,

recognizing that climate change of Earth and its adverse effects are subject of general concern of mankind,

being anxious that human activities were resulted by essential increase in concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that such increase strengthens natural greenhouse effect and that it will bring, on average, to additional warming of surface and atmosphere of Earth and can make adverse effect on natural ecosystems and mankind,

noting that the greatest share of taking place in the past and current global emissions of greenhouse gases is the share of developed countries that the level of emissions per capita in developing countries is still rather low and that the share of the global emissions made in developing countries will increase in connection with satisfaction of their social needs and needs for development, 

considering role and importance in land and marine ecosystems of absorbers and stores of greenhouse gases,

noting numerous uncertainty of forecasts of climate change, in particular concerning their terms, scales and regional features,

recognizing that global nature of climate change requires the broadest cooperation of all countries and their participation in activities for effective and proper international reaction in compliance with their general, but the differentiated responsibility and real opportunities, and also their social and economic conditions,

referring to relevant provisions of the Declaration of the Conference of the United Nations on problems of the circle surrounding the person accepted in Stockholm on June 16, 1972

reminding that according to Articles of organization of the United Nations and the principles of international law of the state have the sovereign right to develop own resources according to the policy in the field of the environment and development and bear responsibility for providing that activities within their jurisdiction or control did not cause environmental damage of other states or areas outside action of national jurisdiciton,

again confirming the principle of sovereignty of the states in international cooperation in response to climate change,

recognizing that the states should enact the effective legislation in the field of the environment that environmental standards, the purposes and priorities in the field of management shall reflect those aspects of the environment and development to which they are applied and that the standards applied by some countries can be inappropriate and unreasonable from the point of view of economic and social costs for other countries, in particular developing countries,

referring to provisions of the resolution 44/228 of the General Assembly of December 22, 1989 about conference of the United Nations on the environment and development and resolutions 43/53 of December 6, 1988, 44/207 of December 22, 1989, 45/212 of December 21, 1990 and 46/169 of December 19, 1991 about protection of global climate for the benefit of present and future generations of mankind,

referring also to provisions of the resolution 44/206 of the General Assembly of December 22, 1989 about possible adverse effects of sea level rise for islands and coastal areas, in particular low-lying coastal areas, and to relevant provisions of the resolution 44/172 of the General Assembly of December 19, 1989 about implementation of the Action plan on fight against desertification,

referring further to the Vienna convention of 1985 on protection of ozone layer and the Montreal protocol of 1987 on the substances destroying ozone layer with changes and amendments of June 29, 1990,

taking into consideration the Declaration of ministers adopted on November 7, 1990 at the second World climatic conference

understanding the value of analytical work which is carried out by many states in the field of climate change, and importance of the contribution made by the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme and other bodies, the organizations and bodies of the United Nations system, and also other international and intergovernmental authorities in process of exchange of results of scientific research and coordination of researches

recognizing that the measures which are required for understanding and the problem resolution of climate change will be the most effective from the ecological, social and economic points of view if they will be based on the corresponding scientific, technical and economic purposes and will be constantly reviewed in the light of the new results received in these areas

acknowledging the possibility of economic justification of measures for the problem resolution of climate change, and also their capability to promote the solution of other environmental problems,

recognizing also need of immediate acceptance as the first step as developed countries of flexible measures on the basis of accurate priorities in the direction of development of comprehensive strategy of reaction on global, national and, in case of approval, regional levels which would cover all greenhouse gases with due consideration of their relative role in strengthening of greenhouse effect,

recognizing further that low-lying and other small island countries, the countries with low-lying coastal, droughty and semi-arid areas, or the areas subject to floods, drought and desertification, and developing countries with vulnerable mountain ecosystems are especially sensitive to adverse effects of climate change,

recognizing special difficulties of those countries, in particular developing countries which economy especially depends on production, use and export of fossil types of fuel, resulting from measures for emission limitation of greenhouse gases,

confirming that measures for response to climate change shall be coordinated with general package of measures for social and economic development not to allow adverse effect on it, with complete accounting of legitimate priority needs of developing countries in achievement of sustained economic growth and eradication of poverty,

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