of August 1, 2012 No. 383
About approval of the Program of reforming of agricultural industry of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012 - 2022
According to article 7 of the Law of the Republic of Tajikistan "About the state forecasts, concepts, strategy and programs it is social - economic development of the Republic of Tajikistan" and for the purpose of development of high-profit and profitable agricultural production on the basis of rational use and steady management of natural resources and ensuring food security, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan decides:
1. Approve the Program of reforming of agricultural industry of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2012 - 2022 and the Actions plan on its realization (appendices 1 and 2).
2. To the ministries and departments, local executive bodies of the government to take necessary measures for implementation of this Program.
3. Under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan together with the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Tajikistan to provide to committee on television and radio extended coverage of the course of accomplishment of the specified Program in mass media.
4. To the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Tajikistan annually to submit the report on the course of accomplishment of this Program in the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Republic of Tajikistan Emomalii Rahmon
Approved by the order of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan of August 1, 2012 No. 383
1. After acquisition of the state independence in the republic the period of economic reforms began. Since 1992 partial separation of mountain and foothill lands, and also in 1995-1997 of October 9, 1995, No. 342 and of December 1, 1997 began presidential decrees of the Republic of Tajikistan, No. 874 to farmers separated 75 thousand hectares of lands that promoted the population food. After adoption of these decrees part of unemployed population was involved that had important and great value for the problem resolution of employment of the population. For the purpose of effective and rational use of land and water resources, increase in production of agricultural products, the Presidential decree of the Republic of Tajikistan of June 25, 1996 No. 522 "About reorganization of agricultural enterprises and organizations was also accepted" in which implementation process the state order and the prices of agricultural products were declared free that helped liberty of choice and cultivation of products by farmers.
2. The undertaken reform in industry of agricultural industry gave freedom to Dehkan (farmer) farms in the choice and cultivation of all types of crop, and also possibility of carrying out secondary seeding on the exempted fields in many places, in too time the problem resolution of debt of hlopkoseyushchy farms increased sector potential. Transition to new types of the economic relations, the organization of new types of managing and privatization of property, led to radical change of agricultural industry. Today in agricultural industry of the republic there is more 54,3 of one thousand Dehkan (farmer) farms from which 890 constitute associations of Dehkan (farmer) farms, 819 collective Dehkan economy and the 357th cooperative farms.
3. The share of private sector in development of agricultural industry becomes steady. Analyses show that in the republic the agricultural products production volume increases every year. Productions of agricultural products in 2010 in comparison with 1991 increased in 3,2 of time and in general in 2010 in all types farms of the republic it was made grain crops - 1261,1. cotton - potatoes 310,5, - 760,1, of vegetables - 1142,6, melon - 482,4, of fruit - 225,4, and grapes - 124,3, meat - 143, 2, milk - 660, 7 thousand tons, 231,9 eggs of one million pieces that there are more indicators of 1991 (except cotton, meat and eggs) other products, including: grain in - 4,1, of 4,2, potatoes of vegetables - 1.8, melon - 2,8, of fruit - grapes 1,3, - 1,0 and milk - 1, 2 times. The number of cattle constituted 1896,7 of one thousand heads, sheep and goats were constituted by 4394,2 of one thousand heads, birds - 4420,7 of one thousand heads that in comparison with indicators of 1991 respectively increased in time 1,3.
4. It should be noted that in recent years, irrespective of the done harms of natural cataclysms and impact of crisis factors, the agricultural industry is considered it is necessary, steady and one of the sectors developing economy of Tajikistan on average providing 18 - 21% of amounts gross internal produktion. However conceptual issues of agrarian policy, including uncertainty of models of further development of agricultural industry are still not resolved. Therefore for the purpose of increase in efficiency of farm-production and implementation of the Presidential decree of the Republic of Tajikistan of May 30, 2009, No. 663 "About additional measures for support of the agrarian sector" the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan one more resolution of July 2, 2009, No. 406 "About development of the Program of reforming of the agrarian sector is accepted.
5. The program of reforming of agricultural industry of the Republic of Tajikistan (further - the Program) is provided for determination strategic the direction and the methods of providing the high-profit and oriented to export agricultural industry proceeding from general tasks of increase in level of living of rural population of the republic, achievement of food security of the state, and also strengthening of its line items in regional labor division. This Program is based on accepted in the republic of strategic documents as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), the National strategy of development for the Republic of Tajikistan till 2015, the Strategy of reducing poverty of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2010-2012, the Program of food security of the Republic of Tajikistan till 2015 and the Concept of agrarian policy of the Republic of Tajikistan. The program considers the essential changes in macroeconomic policy and economic and social situation of the agrarian sector, strengthening of impact on it of the processes happening in the world markets and also the situations in national economy arising in connection with world financial and economic crisis happening in recent years. All this determines need of assessment of opportunities of agricultural industry, refining of tasks, purposes and the direction of agrarian policy, sformulirovaniye of evidence-based methods and approaches of elimination of the separate moments.
6. Till 1991 the sector of public managing of the Republic of Tajikistan had considerable potential production the building, agricultural machinery and its repair base, huge infrastructure and oborudovaniye of social assignment, and also extensive network of irrigational and drainage networks and construction, roads and power lines. Also the state companies which rendered necessary construction services to agricultural enterprises, both at the expense of the state, and at the expense of farms were effective. Now the main asset holders of kolkhozes and sovkhozes are almost liquidated and legal successors are accurately not determined by them. Small and average Dehkan farms could not be legal successors as they were not legal entities and had no financial possibility of acceptance on the balance of these objects, and their contents in working order. All these fixed assets according to the legislation shall be transferred to the relevant ministries and departments, and social organizations of local administration and to jamias, however this action for the different reasons is not performed.
7. The weak bank system, insufficiently developed structure of logistics of agricultural industry, lack of the mechanism of subsidizing of farm-production, new system of order placement (total volume of demand and offers) on production volume of agricultural products, lack of sufficient infrastructure of agricultural marketing and imperfect regulatory framework did not provide the necessary rate of development of the agrarian sector. Especially it was required: development and enhancement of system of marketing of the agrarian market, tariffing of agricultural import and systems of standards concerning production and the level of safety of agricultural products. Besides, the existing shortcomings of institutional structure and management system the agrarian sector kept elements of the old Soviet command system inherited from the Soviet era. In the period of the deficit of financial resources concerning world financial and economic crisis, these shortcomings became more noticeable. As institutes of the Soviet era were defunct and on their change more effective and productive structures and the organizations were not framed, such procedure for things created, to some extent, institutional vacuum.
8. The current farm-production is not profitable and it is not productive, does not create steady workplaces that led to mass migration of able-bodied population. Today, according to the having estimates, approximately 1, millions of Tajik migrants (generally men) work only in one Russian Federation. About 550 000 people work in the agricultural sector, and make 20% internal gross products. About 70% of the population directly or indirectly depend on agricultural industry. Because of the high level of migration the most part of able-bodied rural population is constituted by women and old men. Thus, the most part of works in the agricultural sector is carried out by women who in most cases have no similar rights as men, such as size of land share in Dehkan economy, compensation, access to finance and the credits. And also the traditional role in social structure also interferes with possession of the same rights, as well as at men. So, it is extremely necessary to pay special attention requests of women concerning accesses to the earth, the land markets, financial resources, and also development of their skills and increases in awareness that they on an equal basis with men could take benefits and use the opportunities offered within reform. In turn, success of agricultural reform depends, in many respects, on extent of realization of potential of women, and observance of their rights in all offered directions of reform.
9. Government subsidies for support of agricultural industry it is performed at the expense of the republican budget where the main sources of formation of the budget are receipts from the industry and service industry. In type of implementation of first-priority strategic objectives of achievements of energy independence and getting out of communication dependence, the amount of government subsidies in the agrarian sector was insufficient. Because of imperfect management system, the local control link in agricultural industry is significantly weakened, the integration relations between agricultural producers, processing enterprises and retail chain stores are destroyed, indistinct was distribution of functions, local government bodies, participation in the field of management of the public organizations representing the economic and political interests of rural producers is weak. Heads of farms are not called for responsibility from co-owners by the land use rights as land users do not realize degree of the competence. Members of Dehkan economy do not participate in decision making process, and also there is no certain procedure for the regular reporting of heads before members of farms. Here set of social and managerial obstacles takes place. There are such owners of the rights of land use who are not interested in occupation in agricultural industry. There are such owners the land use rights which are weakened physically and are not capable to go in for agricultural industry. Are available "absent, the owners of the rights of land use who are not taking part in economic activity are the women having land use rights which rather passive or are not interested in management of economy. Now, according to the legislation the Certificate on the right of land use is issued to farms in which the list of all land unitholders of economy is specified. To individual members of economy the certificate on land share shall be granted. There are also cases when some members of economy are not entered in the list of unitholders of the Certificate on the land use right.
10. The negative impact on development of agricultural industry is exerted by such macroeconomic factors as increase in prices for the energy carriers and other material means consumed in industry, the limiting opportunities of agricultural producers for implementation of expanded reproduction and implementation of the innovation projects, transition to new resource-saving technologies and on this basis of ensuring realization of models of the accelerated economic development. As a result there was absolutely abnormal situation - the big areas of not used lands of agricultural purpose in the conditions of lack of own food and the increasing amounts of its import. In addition to it, increase in prices for food around the world for the last 15 months negatively affected on food security of the country.
11. Strengthening of differentiation of agricultural producers on the level of the income, bankruptcy of considerable part of Dehkan (farmer) farms with all that it implies in the form of unemployment growth, production reduction, deterioration in social and psychological climate in the village, generally happen because of cultivation of low-profit cultures, according to low production of agricultural industry, and with the low volume of investment limited by access to the credits and financings of agricultural industry, low quality of materials of farm-production, such as seeds, fertilizers, and also limited access to irrigation water.
12. Lack of necessary infrastructure, transport, deterioration in road condition in the rural zone, and also lack of access to market information, insufficient organization of farmers, undeveloped infrastructure of the agrofood market and difficulty in accesses of agricultural producers to it, lack of marketing skills, growth of agricultural import and food influences negatively food security of the country. Irrational use and management of natural resources, imperfection of land relations in the agrarian sector and the weakened irrigational system led to soil fertility degradation, deterioration in its meliorative condition and increase in the areas of not used lands. Inefficient use of pastures, desertification, salinization, bogging and degradation of soils of the earth, in general, promoted deterioration in ecological condition of agricultural industry. Also weakened control over the production technology and quality of foodstuff influenced negatively agro-industrial production, and also foodstuff, food. Climate change is additional burden that will probably create significant risks for economic activity, public welfare and the environment in the Republic of Tajikistan. It is one more additional obstacle, in addition to other problems, for achievement of stable and long-term growth of agricultural industry and decrease in level of poverty in the country. At the same time the threats which arose in connection with influence on national economy of world financial and economic crisis, promoting delay of general rates of economic growth and development, and limiting possibilities of the Government in development of investment of the agrarian sector increase.
13. General purpose of the Program is implementation of reform on the basis of accomplishment of priorities and the solution of the main problems designated in the National strategy of development for the Republic of Tajikistan for the period till 2015, the Strategy of reducing poverty of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2010-2012, the Program of food security of the Republic of Tajikistan for the period till 2015 and the Concept of agrarian policy of the Republic of Tajikistan. In the National strategy of development for the Republic of Tajikistan (NSR) for the period till 2015 it is provided: development of agricultural industry is limited to high transport costs and irrigation, backwardness of the servicing structures, suspense of problems of financing of ownerless transport and irrigational systems that causes preserving serious problems in food security. In the Section of economic development of the National strategy of development for the Republic of Tajikistan for the period till 2015 its general priorities are determined as follows:
- reorientation of industry policy for achievement of the national purposes and priorities;
- diversification and upgrade of production, development of the competition and increase in the export potential;
- ensuring food security and consumer protection;
- reducing excessive tax and administrative barriers;
- environmental protection (effective use of natural resources as the earth and water means).
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