of December 5, 2006 No. 321
About approval of the Instruction for application of Classification of inventories to fields of precious metals (gold, silver, platinum)
1. Approve the enclosed Instruction for application of Classification of inventories to fields of precious metals (gold, silver, platinum).
2. To provide to committee of geology and subsurface use of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the procedure established by the legislation state registration of this order in the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
3. This order becomes effective after ten days from the date of its official publication.
Acting Minister B. Orazbayev
Approved by the order of the Deputy. The Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 5, 2006 No. 321
2. The instruction determines the main requirements to study of fields of precious metals (gold, silver, platinum), stock counting, preparation of the reconnoitered fields to industrial development, the conclusion of contracts for exploration and production of minerals.
3. The instruction contains general information about properties and scope of precious metals, the short characteristic of geological and industrial types of fields, technological conversion of ores and environment in the world market.
4. Fulfillment of requirements of the Instruction is necessary condition of work by all subsoil users of the Republic of Kazakhstan in case of investigation and development of fields of precious metals.
5. Gold - metal of golden-yellow color, its density 19,32 of grams on cubic centimeter (ñá½ÑÑú/cm 3), melting temperature 1063fs. Gold has high warm and conductivity, softness, viscosity, unique malleability and viscosity. It forms alloys with many metals: platinum, palladium, silver, copper, bismuth, chrome, cobalt, indium, tin, aluminum, zinc, cadmium, zirconium and others. With mercury gold forms amalgam.
Gold does not change in atmospheric conditions and does not unite with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon in case of high temperatures. Solvents of gold are aqua regia and alkaline cyanides, and also solutions of halogens, sulphurous sodium and some organic substances.
Gold is the main currency metal, performs function of the state currency reserve and remains in the form of the so-called gold stock in national banks used in case of international settlements. The state gold and foreign exchange reserves are considered as one of factors of economic safety of the country, ensuring currency receipts and receipt of the foreign credits. Gold plays large role in economic development of the states which are engaged in its extraction and production.
Gold and its alloys are widely used in jewelry production, and also in the electronic and electrotechnical industry.
Traditional and largest consumer of gold is the jewelry industry. For jewelry in the Commonwealth of Independent States (further - the CIS) establishes the following probnost: 375, 500, 583, 750 and 958. On content of gold test - the number of units of mass of chemically pure gold specifies 1000 units of native gold or alloy.
Gold or its alloys are applied as welding materials in details of aviation and rocket engines, supersonic airplanes, nuclear reactors, spacecrafts.
In the electronic equipment make electrodes for semiconductors of gold of high purity. The gold alloyed by germanium, indium, gallium, silicon, tin and selenium goes for production of contacts, rectifiers, transistors.
Industrial use of gold and its alloys increases in connection with development of electronics and space equipment, and also increase in requirements to ecological purity of technical means and engineering procedures.
Gold finds broad application in medicine (stomatology, medical supplies).
Gold concerns to group of halkofilny elements, his Clark in crust constitutes % 4,5Ch10-7. Gold can be in scattered condition in breeds and create industrial concentration in ores with increase in contents in thousands and tens of thousands of times. Halkofilny properties of gold are shown in its communication with tellurium, selenium, sulfur, bismuth, antimony and arsenic, and also with the main halkofilny minerals - pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and others.
Now about 40 minerals of gold are known, from them industrial value calaverite, krennerite, petzite have native gold, электрум (Appendix 1, the table 01).
The main industrial mineral of gold fields is the native gold. Chemical composition of native gold is characterized by its test, and also content elementovprimesy (copper, iron, lead, antimony, arsenic, mercury, tellurium, bismuth and others).
Gold can be free, not connected chemically with other elements except silver and not being disperse inclusion in other minerals. Gold connected is in type of chemical compounds and finely dispersed inclusions in sulfides.
In ores gold is present, mainly, at native type. It often contains in scattered finely dispersed condition in quartz and sulfides (pyrite, arsenopyrite, galenite, chalcopyrite, faded ores and other minerals). The native gold usually does not happen chemically net and represents solid solution with silver, is more rare with copper, palladium, bismuth, tellurium and others. The following kinds of gold are allocated: электрум with silver content higher than 25%; kyustelit with gold content from 10 to 25% and silver from 75 to 90%; coppery gold (купроаурид) with content of copper to 20%; palladisty gold (porpetsit) with palladium content from 5 to 11% and silver to 4%; bismuthous gold (bismutoaurit) up to 4% with content of bismuth.
According to form золотин allocate native gold lamellar, sheet, scaly, wire, dendritovidny, granular, powdered. Seldom the crystal gold having the form of cube, octahedron or pentagondodekaedr meets. By the amount of allocation gold is subdivided on disperse with size less than 10 micrometers (further - micron); small - from 10 microns to 0,1 of millimeters (further - mm); среднееот 0,1 to mm 1,0; large - from 1 to 5 mm and nuggets - more than 5 mm (10 g on weight are higher).
On content of gold natural and technological types of gold ores are allocated: the rich with content of gold from 10 to 30 grams on ton (further - g/t) and sometimes above; ordinary - from 3-6 to 10 g/t; bednye2-3 g/t and below. In the industry use also ores with low content of gold - 1-2 g/t and sometimes g/t 0,5-1 if feasibility of conversion is economically proved, in particular, in case of use of technology of compact lixiviation.
Depending on amount of sulfides gold-bearing ores are subdivided on ubogosulfidny with content of sulfides to 2%, low-sulphidic - to 5%, moderate and sulphidic - from 5 to 20% and significantly sulphidic - more than 20%. The most widespread types of gold ores are gold-quartz, gold sulphidic and quartz and gold and sulphidic. Gold-quartz ores with content of sulfides from the tenth shares of percent to 1% carry to ubogosulfidny. Gold sulphidic and quartz ores differ from gold-quartz in the increased content of sulphidic minerals (from 1-2 to 5-10%) and association of gold with sulfides. Gold and sulphidic ores contain passing components: silver, copper, lead, zinc, bismuth, cadmium, selenium, tellurium and others.
Gold теллуридные ores are characterized by broad development of tellurides of gold (calaverite, krennerite, sylvanite, petzite) which meet as independently, and in association native gold and sulfides (pyrite, arsenopyrite, galenite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and others).
On the oxidation level of ore subdivide on primary (sulphidic), partially oxidized (mixed) and oxidized. In sulphidic ores the oxidation level of sulfides constitutes no more than 10%, in mixed - 10-50%, in oxidized - more than 50%. Primary (sulphidic) ores have the greatest industrial value now.
In complex gold-bearing fields in which gold is part of ores of non-ferrous and rare metals and where other metals (copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, tungsten, bismuth, silver) have the major industrial importance, gold often is simultaneously extracted component.
Kazakhstan is the large gold-bearing province and on explored reserves of gold also the third place in the CIS takes the tenth place in the world. The main inventories and their production are concentrated in Northern, Central, East and Southern Kazakhstan where there are most large-scale gold deposits (Vasilkovskoye, Bakyrchik, Akbakay, Bestobe, Zholymbet) and complex gold-bearing fields of non-ferrous and rare metals. Gold objects with small inventories, but with the high contents of gold allowing message gold mining by effective open method are involved in industrial development. Gold mining growth perspectives communicate also using technology of extraction of gold by method of compact lixiviation from poor ores of gold fields.
The Republic of Kazakhstan has the high resource potential of gold in subsoil for reproduction of mineral resources and development of gold mining.
6. Silver - the silver-white metal having density of 10,5 of g/cm3 and temperature of melting of 960,50C; has raised warm and conductivity, high reflective capability and chemical firmness. Silver - the soft and plastic metal which is easily giving in to processing by pressure.
Scopes of silver are determined by its high conductivity, photosensitivity, reflective capability, plasticity, corrosion resistance.
Silver is widely used in production of jewelry, production of medals and medallions, for stamping of coins. For jewelry products the following probnost of silver is established: 750, 800, 875, 916, 925, 960.
The most important sphere of consumption of silver is production of light-sensitive film and photographic materials.
Silver is widely applied in the electrotechnical and electronic industry where it is used as conductors, contacts, alloys and solders. Silver solders apply in exact instrument making and to connection of details in the aircraft and space equipment.
Silver-zinc and silver-cadmium accumulators use in the aircraft equipment and the underwater fleet. The tiny power supplies containing silver chloride apply in the electronic clock, film and video cameras, microcalculators. With indium and cadmium make the regulating cores of nuclear reactors of silver alloy.
Big perspectives of use of silver contact creation on its basis of the composition materials reinforced by fibers of metals, oxides and others.
Silver belongs to halkofilny elements, his Clark in crust constitutes 7Ch10-6 of %.
Silver in the nature meets in native type, and also in the form of the silver and argentiferous minerals which are part of sulfides, silver sulfosalts, haloids, tellurides and selenides. More than 60 minerals of silver are known, main of which are given in table 02 (Appendix 1).
Native silver usually contains impurity of gold, copper, iron, sometimes bismuth, antimony and mercury. Except chemically net silver its versions meet: coppery silver, antimonous silver, kyustelit with isomorphic impurity of gold and others.
Native silver in ores is present at type of the wrong allocations, thin plates, films, dendrites, skeletal crystals the size from submicroscopic to nuggets weighing several hundred kilograms.
Industrial ores of silver mainly complex. Among them differentiate actually silver (gold-silver, lead-silver, arsenido-silver, tin-silver) and complex argentiferous (polymetallic, chalcopyrite, copper and porphyritic, sulphidic copper-nickel). In actually silver ores silver is one of the main useful components. In complex argentiferous ores where other metals have the major industrial importance (gold, copper, lead, zinc, tin and others), silver is simultaneously extracted component.
On oxidation level differentiate primary (sulphidic), partially oxidized and oxidized argentiferous ores. In primary (sulphidic) ores sulphidic minerals constitute up to 60-80%. At the oxidized ores there are oxides and hydroxides of iron, and also oxides, sulfates and carbonates of non-ferrous metals. Partially oxidized ores, along with sulfides, contain the minerals characteristic of the oxidized ores. Oxidation level of ores on different fields is estimated based on the ratio of sulfur sulphidic and sulphatic, based on the ratio of content of iron as a part of sulphidic minerals and oxides, on content of the oxidized minerals of non-ferrous metals.
In world production of silver complex argentiferous ores of fields of non-ferrous metals constitute about 70% and gold-silver fields - 10-15%, and ore of actually silver fields - 15-20%.
In the world market silver supply-demand balance rather stable. The need for silver constantly grows and the deficit of silver in the industry is substantially covered at the expense of secondary silver.
Kazakhstan on inventories of silver is included into ten the leading countries of the world and its production is conducted in passing from complex copper and polymetallic ores.
7. Platinum - the metal of silver-white color having density of 21,50-22,8 of g/cm3 and temperature of melting of 1773,50C.
Metals of platinum group (platinum, palladium, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, iridium) are characterized by high density and differ in chemical and thermal stability. From them arsenical, antimonous, telluride and sulphurous chemical compounds are steadiest. For all elements of platinum group high values of potential of ionization what their capability easily is connected with to be recovered to metals, and inertness to the majority of chemical reagents are noted.
The main types of products of metals of platinum group (further - MPG) are net metals and their alloys. MPG have high fire resistance, good conductivity, chemical firmness and capability to absorb gases (hydrogen, oxygen). The most important consumer of platinoids is the chemical industry. Of platinoids and their alloys manufacture kisloto-and the heat resisting factory equipment, the laboratory equipment, grids and cathodes for electrolysis, filters, crucibles.
Platinum on production volume and width of scopes of application has the leading value among MPG. The main consumers of platinum are the automobile, electronic, electrotechnical, chemical and oil processing industries. In the electrotechnical and electronic industries alloys of platinum go for production of contacts, safety locks of precision electric devices, cathodes and anti-cathodes of x-ray tubes. Platinum is applied in case of production of filters converters to cars, as the catalyst in case of production of high-octane gasoline, sulfuric and nitric acids. Alloys with gold, iridium and palladium in jewelry and medicine have broad application (stomatology), in case of production of standards of measures and scales.
MPG belong to very scattered elements in crust. Clark constitutes platinum 1Ch10-6 of %. All elements of platinum group - typical siderophile with poorly shown halkofilny properties.
The main minerals of platinum are given in table 03 (Appendix 1). Except own mineral forms metals of platinum group in ores are present at type of isomorphic impurity. Sulfides of copper-nickel ores - pentlandite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite are richest with platinoids.
Industrial concentration of MPG are connected with sulphidic, sulphidic and magnetite, sulfidnokhromitovy and chromite ores. Platinometallny ores are provided by two main types: sulphidic copper nickel platino-palladium and sulphidic and chromite platino-palladium. From the MPG complex ores are taken in passing.
In world production of MPG own fields of platinoids and complex platiniferous ores of sulphidic copper-nickel fields have principal value. In small amount platinum is extracted from ores of copper and porphyritic fields.
In Kazakhstan fields of platinoids are not known now. According to the Zhezkazgan and Balkhash copper-smelting plants, the Ust-Kamenogorsk and Shymkent lead plants, in copper concentrates contents of palladium from 0,003 to 3 g/t and platinum from 0,001 to g/t 0,5 are noted; in lead and zinc concentrates content of these elements does not exceed thousand shares of g/t.
8. Gold deposits are provided by eleven geological and industrial types (Appendix 2, the table 04):
1) gold sulphidic and quartz fields in intrusive, volcanogenic and sedimentary complexes are numerous and in Kazakhstan have the principal industrial value in inventories and gold mining.
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