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FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONAL LAW OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

of February 7, 2011 No. 1-FKZ

About courts of law in the Russian Federation

(as amended on 16-04-2022)

Approved by the State Duma on January 28, 2011

Approved by the Federation Council on February 2, 2011

Chapter 1. General provisions

Article 1. System of courts of law

1. The system of courts of law in the Russian Federation is constituted by federal courts of the general jurisdiction and courts of law of subjects of the Russian Federation.

2. Treat federal courts of the general jurisdiction:

1) courts of cassation of the general jurisdiction;

2) Appeal Courts of the general jurisdiction;

3) Supreme Courts of the republics, regional, regional courts, courts of the federal cities, court of the autonomous region, courts of autonomous areas;

4) district courts, city courts, interdistrict courts (further - district courts);

5) military courts, powers, procedure for education and which activities are established by the Federal constitutional Law;

6) specialized courts, powers, procedure for education and which activities are established by the Federal constitutional Law.

3. Magistrate judges treat courts of law of subjects of the Russian Federation.

Article 2. Legislation of the Russian Federation on courts of law

1. Powers, procedure for education and activities of federal courts of the general jurisdiction are established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal constitutional Law of December 31, 1996 N 1-FKZ "About judicial system of the Russian Federation" (further - the Federal constitutional Law "About Judicial System of the Russian Federation"), the Federal constitutional Law of June 23, 1999 N 1-FKZ "About public vessels of the Russian Federation" and this Federal constitutional Law.

2. Powers, procedure for activities of magistrate judges and procedure for creation of positions of magistrate judges are established by the Federal constitutional Law "About Judicial System of the Russian Federation" and the Federal Laws, and the procedure for appointment (election) and activities of magistrate judges is established also by the laws of subjects of the Russian Federation.

Article 3. Procedure for creation and abolition of courts of law

1. Federal courts of the general jurisdiction are created and abolished only by the Federal Law.

2. Judicial sites and positions of magistrate judges are created and abolished by the laws of subjects of the Russian Federation.

3. No court can be abolished if the matters of implementation of justice carried to its maintaining were not at the same time referred in jurisdiction of other court.

4. Total number of judges of federal courts of the general jurisdiction is established by the Federal Law on the federal budget for the next financial year and planning period.

5. Total number of magistrate judges and the number of judicial sites of the subject of the Russian Federation are determined by the Federal Law by the legislative initiative of appropriate subject of the Russian Federation approved with the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation or at the initiative of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation approved with appropriate subject of the Russian Federation.

Article 4. Justice implementation by courts of law

1. Courts of law perform justice, resolving disputes and considering the cases referred to their competence by means of civil, administrative and criminal trial.

2. Courts of law consider:

1) all civil and administrative cases about protection of the violated or disputed rights, freedoms and interests protected by the law, except for cases which in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation are considered by other courts;

2) all criminal cases;

3) other cases referred by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal constitutional Laws and the Federal Laws to their maintaining.

3. Territorial cognizance and other rules for apportionment of cases on cognizance between courts of law are established by the Federal Laws.

Article 5. Principles of activity of the courts of the general jurisdiction

1. Justice in the Russian Federation is performed only by court.

2. Nobody can be deprived of the right to consideration of its case in that court of law and that judge to which cognizance it is carried by this Federal constitutional Law and the Federal Laws.

3. All are equal before court. Courts do not give preference to any bodies, persons participating in process to the parties on the basis of their state, social, sexual, racial, national, language or political affiliation or depending on their origin, property and official capacity, the residence, the birthplace, the relation to religion, beliefs, belonging to public associations, and is equal also on other bases which are not provided by the Federal Law.

4. Courts of law perform judicial authority irrespective of legislative and executive bodies of the government. In the Russian Federation legislative and other regulatory legal acts cannot be published and be performed the actions (failure to act) canceling or belittling independence of the courts and judges.

5. Trial of cases in courts of law open. Hearing of the case in closed meeting is allowed only in the cases provided by the Federal Law.

6. Hearing of cases in courts of law internal. The correspondence production is allowed only in the cases provided by the Federal Law.

7. Hearing of cases in courts of law is performed on the basis of competitiveness and equality of participants.

8. The become effective court resolutions of courts of law, and also their legal orders, requirements, orders, challenges and other addresses are obligatory for all federal bodies of the government, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies, the government and local government officers, public associations, officials, other physical persons and legal entities and are subject to strict execution in all territory of the Russian Federation.

Article 6. Financial provision of activity of the courts of the general jurisdiction

1. Financial provision of activities of federal courts of the general jurisdiction and magistrate judges is performed within budgetary appropriations according to the federal budget and budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation according to the procedure, established by this Federal constitutional Law, other Federal constitutional Laws, the Federal Laws, other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation.

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