Document from CIS Legislation database © 2003-2024 SojuzPravoInform LLC

FEDERAL LAW OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

of July 22, 2008 No. 123-FZ

The technical regulation about requirements of fire safety

(as amended on 25-12-2023)

Accepted by the State Duma on July 4, 2008

Approved by the Federation Council on July 11, 2008

Section I. General principles of ensuring fire safety

Chapter 1. General provisions

Article 1. Purposes and scope of the technical regulation

1. This Federal Law is adopted for the purpose of protection of life, health, property of citizens and legal entities, the state-owned and municipal property against the fires, determines basic provisions of technical regulation in the field of fire safety and establishes minimum necessary requirements of fire safety to subjects to protection (products), including to buildings and constructions, production facilities, fire and technical products and products of general purpose. The technical regulations accepted according to the Federal Law of December 27, 2002 No. 184-FZ "About technical regulation" (further - the Federal Law "About Technical Regulation"), are not effective in the part containing the requirements of fire safety to the specified products other than the requirements established by this Federal Law.

2. Provisions of this Federal Law on ensuring fire safety of subjects to protection are obligatory for execution in case of:

1) designing, construction, capital repairs, reconstruction, modernization, change of functional purpose, maintenance, operation and utilization of subjects to protection;

2) development, acceptance, application and execution of the technical regulations accepted according to the Federal Law "About Technical Regulation", containing requirements of fire safety, and also regulating documents for fire safety;

3) to development of technical documentation on subjects to protection.

3. Concerning subjects to protection of special purpose, including military objects, nuclear power plants, production facilities, objects of conversion, storage radioactive and explosives and materials, the subjects to destruction and storage of chemical weapon and blasting agents, land space objects and starting complexes, excavations, objects located in the woods along with this Federal Law the requirements of fire safety established by regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation shall be observed.

4. Technical regulation in the field of fire safety of nuclear weapon and the related processes of development, production, operation, storage, transportation, liquidation and utilization of its components, and also in the field of fire safety of buildings and constructions, objects of the organizations of nuclear weapon complex of the Russian Federation is established by the legislation of the Russian Federation.

5. Concerning objects of cultural heritage (historical and cultural monuments) of the people of the Russian Federation of religious purpose of the requirement of fire safety are established by the relevant regulating document on fire safety.

6. Concerning fire safety and fire extinguishing devices of the requirement of fire safety are established by the technical regulation of the Eurasian Economic Union "About requirements to fire safety and fire extinguishing devices" (TR EEU 043/2017).

Article 2. Basic concepts

For the purposes of this Federal Law the basic concepts, the stipulated in Clause 2 Federal Laws "About Technical Regulation", by article 1 of the Federal Law of December 21, 1994 No. 69-FZ "About fire safety" (further - the Federal Law "About Fire Safety"), and also the following basic concepts are used:

1) emergency exit - exit which does not meet requirements imposed to emergency exits and is provided for increase in safety of people in case of the fire;

2) the safety area - zone in which people are protected from impact of dangerous factors of the fire or in which dangerous factors of the fire are absent;

3) explosion - the bystry chemical transformation of the circle which is followed by allocation of energy and formation of the compressed gases;

4) explosive mix - mix of air or oxidizer with combustible gases, vapors of flammable liquids, combustible pylyam or fibers which in case of certain concentration and emergence of source of initiation of explosion is capable to blow up;

5) vzryvopozharoopasnost of subject to protection - the condition of subject to protection characterized by possibility of explosion and development of the fire or emergence of the fire and the subsequent explosion;

6) the combustible circle - the circle capable to ignite in case of impact of source of ignition;

7) the declaration of fire safety - the form of assessment of conformity containing information on the measures of fire safety aimed at providing on subject to protection of normative value of fire risk;

8) admissible fire risk - fire risk which level is admissible and reasonable proceeding from social and economic conditions;

9) individual fire risk - fire risk which can lead to death of the person as a result of impact of dangerous factors of the fire;

10) ignition source - the means of energy impact initiating emergence of burning;

11) class of constructive fire risk of buildings, constructions and fire compartments - the classification characteristic of buildings, constructions and fire compartments determined by extent of participation of building constructions in development of the fire and formation of dangerous factors of the fire;

12) class of functional fire risk of buildings, constructions and fire compartments - the classification characteristic of buildings, constructions and fire compartments determined by appointment and features of operation of the specified buildings, constructions and fire compartments, including features of implementation in the specified buildings, constructions and fire compartments of engineering procedures of production;

13) outside installation - complex of the devices and processing equipment located out of buildings and constructions;

14) necessary time of evacuation - time from the moment of emergence of the fire during which people shall be evacuated to the safety area without damnification of life and to human health as a result of impact of dangerous factors of the fire;

15) subject to protection - products, including property of citizens or legal entities, the state-owned or municipal property (including the objects located in the territories of settlements and also buildings, constructions, vehicles, technology installations, the equipment, aggregates, products and other property) to which are established or shall be established requirements of fire safety for prevention of the fire and protection of people in case of the fire;

Oxidizers - the substances and materials having capability to react 16) with combustible substances, causing their burning, and also to increase its intensity;

17) dangerous factors of the fire - fire factors which impact can lead to injury, poisoning or death of the person and (or) to material damage;

18) the seat of fire - the place of initial emergence of the fire;

19) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

20) fire safety of subject to protection - the condition of subject to protection characterized by possibility of prevention of origin and development of the fire, and also impact on people and property of dangerous factors of the fire;

21) fire risk of substances and materials - the condition of substances and materials characterized by possibility of burning or explosion of substances and materials;

22) fire risk of subject to protection - the condition of subject to protection characterized by possibility and fire developments, and also impact on people and property of dangerous factors of the fire;

22. 1) fire section - the part of fire compartment allocated with fire-proof barriers and (or) zone, free from fire loading;

23) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

24) fire depot - object of fire protection in which rooms for storage of the fire fighting equipment and its maintenance, service premises for accommodation of staff, the room for acceptance of notifications on the fire, the technical and auxiliary rooms necessary for accomplishment of the tasks assigned to fire protection are located;

25) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

26) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

27) fire compartment - the part of the building or construction allocated with fire-proof walls and (or) fire-proof overlappings of the 1st type;

28) fire risk - measure of sales opportunity of fire risk of subject to protection and its effects for people and material values;

29) fire-and-explosion hazard of substances and materials - capability of substances and materials for education combustible (fire-dangerous or explosive) environments, characterized by their physical and chemical properties and (or) behavior in the conditions of the fire;

30) fire hazardous (explosive) zone - part of the closed or open space within which constantly or periodically combustible substances address and in which they can be in case of the normal mode of engineering procedure or its violation (accident);

31) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

32) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

33) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

34) production facilities - objects of industrial and agricultural purpose, including warehouses, objects of engineering and transport infrastructure (rail, road, river, sea, air and pipeline transport), objects of communication;

35) fire-proof barrier - building construction with the normalized limit of fire resistance and class of constructive fire risk of design, the volume element of the building or other engineering decision intended for prevention of distribution of the fire from one part of the building, construction in another or between buildings, constructions, green plantings;

36) fire-proof gap (fire-proof distance) - the normalized distance between buildings, constructions established for prevention of distribution of the fire;

37) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

38) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

39) system of prevention of the fire - complex of the organizational actions and technical means excluding possibility of the fire on subject to protection;

40) system of antismoke protection - complex of organizational actions, space-planning decisions, engineering systems and the technical means allocated for prevention or restriction of danger of smoke of buildings and constructions in case of the fire and also impacts of dangerous factors of the fire on people and material values;

41) the fire protection system - complex of the organizational actions and technical means allocated for protection of people and property against impact of dangerous factors of the fire and (or) restriction of effects of impact of dangerous factors of the fire for subject to protection (products);

42) ceased to be valid.

43) social fire risk - degree of the danger leading to death of group of people as a result of impact of dangerous factors of the fire;

44) degree of fire resistance of buildings, constructions and fire compartments - the classification characteristic of buildings, constructions and fire compartments determined by limits of fire resistance of the designs applied to construction of the specified buildings, constructions and compartments;

45) ceased to be valid according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

46) the technology circle - the substances and materials addressing in the technology equipment (technology system);

47) stability of subject to protection in case of the fire - property of subject to protection to keep constructive integrity and (or) functional purpose in case of impact of dangerous factors of the fire and secondary manifestations of dangerous factors of the fire;

48) emergency exit - the exit conducting on the way of evacuation, directly outside or to the safety area;

49) evacuation way (way of evacuation) - way of movement and (or) movement of people, the leader directly outside or to the safety area, meeting requirements of safe evacuation of people in case of the fire;

50) evacuation - process of organized independent movement of people directly outside or to the safety area on ways of evacuation through emergency exits;

51) screen wall - the self-bearing building construction or filling of aperture in building construction with the normalized limit of fire resistance intended for prevention of distribution of the fire.

Article 3. The legal basis of technical regulation in the field of fire safety

The legal basis of technical regulation in the field of fire safety are the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the conventional principles and rules of international law, the international agreements of the Russian Federation, the Federal Law "About Technical Regulation", the Federal Law "About Fire Safety" and this Federal Law according to which the regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation regulating questions of ensuring fire safety of subjects to protection (products) are developed and adopted.

Article 4. Technical regulation in the field of fire safety

1. Technical regulation in the field of fire safety represents:

1) establishment in regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation and regulating documents on fire safety of requirements of fire safety to products, design processes, productions, operation, storage, transportation, realization and utilization;

2) legal regulation of the relations in scopes and uses of requirements of fire safety;

3) legal regulation of the relations in the field of assessment of conformity.

2. The technical regulations accepted according to the Federal Law "About Technical Regulation", the Federal Laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation establishing requirements of fire safety, obligatory for execution, belong to regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation on fire safety.

3. On fire safety treat regulating documents:

1) national standards, sets of rules, and also other documents containing requirements of fire safety which are included in the list of documents on standardization and as a result of which application on voluntary basis observance of requirements of this Federal Law is provided;

2) the standards of the organizations containing requirements of fire safety, and also special specifications reflecting specifics of ensuring fire safety of buildings and constructions and containing complex of necessary technical and organizational actions for ensuring fire safety.

4. If provisions of this Federal Law (except for Article provisions 64, of part of 1 Article 82, of part 7 of Article 83, of part 12 of Article 84, of parts 1.1 and 1.2 of article 97 of this Federal Law) establish higher requirements of fire safety, than the requirements existing about day of entry into force of relevant provisions of this Federal Law for subjects to protection which were put into operation or the project documentation on which was directed to examination about day of entry into force of relevant provisions of this Federal Law, earlier existing requirements are applied. At the same time reconstruction or modernization, requirements of this Federal Law are applied to subjects to protection on which were made capital repairs in the part corresponding to amount of works on capital repairs, reconstruction or modernization.

5. In the territories of the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol concerning subjects to protection which were put into operation or the project documentation on which was directed to examination till January 1, 2015, earlier existing requirements of fire safety are applied till September 1, 2018.

6. In the territories of the Donetsk People's Republic, the Luhansk People's Republic, the Zaporizhia region and Kherson region concerning subjects to protection which are put into operation or the project documentation of which was directed to examination of the project documentation of capital construction projects till September 30, 2022, the requirements of fire safety regulated by the legislation of Ukraine, the Donetsk People's Republic, the Luhansk People's Republic are applied till January 1, 2028.

Article 5. Ensuring fire safety of subjects to protection

1. Each subject to protection shall have system of ensuring fire safety.

2. The purpose of creation of system of ensuring fire safety of subject to protection is prevention of the fire, safety of people and protection of property in case of the fire.

3. The system of ensuring fire safety of subject to protection includes system of prevention of the fire, the fire protection system, complex of organizational and technical actions for ensuring fire safety.

4. The system of ensuring fire safety of subject to protection without fail shall contain complex of the actions excluding possibility of exceeding of values of the admissible fire risk established by this Federal Law, and sent on prevention of danger of damnification to the third parties as a result of the fire.

Article 6. Conditions of compliance of subject to protection to requirements of fire safety

1. Fire safety of subject to protection is considered secure in case of accomplishment in full of the requirements of fire safety established by this Federal Law and also one of the following conditions:

1) the requirements of fire safety containing in the regulating documents on fire safety specified in Item 1 of part 3 of article 4 of this Federal Law are fulfilled;

2) the fire risk does not exceed the admissible values established by this Federal Law;

3) the requirements of fire safety containing in the special specifications reflecting specifics of ensuring fire safety of buildings and constructions and containing complex of the necessary technical and organizational actions for ensuring fire safety approved according to the procedure, established by the federal executive body authorized on the solution of tasks in the field of fire safety are fulfilled;

4) the requirements of fire safety containing in the standard of the organization which is approved according to the procedure established by the federal executive body authorized on the solution of tasks in the field of fire safety are fulfilled;

5) results of researches, calculations and (or) testing confirm ensuring fire safety of subject to protection according to part 7 of this Article.

2. Ceased to be valid

3. In case of accomplishment of the mandatory requirements of fire safety established by the technical regulations accepted according to the Federal Law "About Technical Regulation" and requirements of regulating documents for fire safety and also for subjects to protection which were put into operation or the project documentation on which was directed to examination about day of entry into force of this Federal Law, calculation of fire risk is not required.

4. Voided according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

5. The owner of subject to protection or person who owns it on other legal cause (on the right of lease, economic maintaining, operational management and another) shall within implementation of measures of fire safety according to article 64 of this Federal Law within six months from the date of acquisition of right of such right to develop and provide the declaration of fire safety in notifying procedure.

6. Calculations for assessment of fire risk are component of the declaration of fire safety or the declaration of industrial safety (on objects for which they shall be developed in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation).

7. The procedure for carrying out calculations for assessment of fire risk is determined by regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation and regulating documents by fire safety.

8. Development of the declaration of fire safety is not required for reasons for fire safety of fire and technical products and products of general purpose.

Article 6.1. Identification of subjects to protection

Identification of the building, construction, production facility is carried out by establishment of their compliance to the following essential signs:

1) class of functional fire risk;

2) fire resistance degree, class of constructive fire risk;

3) category of outside installations on fire risk, category of buildings, constructions and rooms on fire and fire and explosion risk (for production facilities).

Chapter 2. Classification of the fires and dangerous factors of the fire

Article 7. Purpose of classification of the fires and dangerous factors of the fire

1. Classification of the fires by the form of combustible material is used for designation of scope of fire extinguishing means.

2. Classification of the fires by complexity of their suppression is used in case of determination of structure of forces and means of divisions of fire protection and other services necessary for suppression of the fires.

3. Classification of dangerous factors of the fire is used in case of substantiation of measures of fire safety, people, necessary for protection, and property in case of the fire.

Article 8. Classification of the fires

1. The fires are classified by the form combustible material and subdivided into the following main classes:

1) fires of solid combustible substances and materials (A);

2) the fires of combustible liquids or the melting solid substances and materials (B);

3) fires of gases (C);

4) fires of metals (D);

5) the fires of combustible substances and materials of the electroinstallations which are energized (E);

6) fires of nuclear materials, radioactive waste and radioactive materials (F).

2. Additional classes and subclasses of the fires can be established by regulating documents on fire safety.

Article 9. Dangerous factors of the fire

1. Treat the dangerous factors of the fire influencing people and property:

1) flame and sparks;

2) thermal flow;

3) the increased ambient temperature;

4) the increased concentration of toxic products of burning and thermal decomposition;

5) the lowered concentration of oxygen;

6) visibility reduction in smoke.

2. Treat the accompanying manifestations of dangerous factors of the fire:

1) splinters, parts of the collapsed buildings, constructions, vehicles, technology installations, the equipment, aggregates, products and other property;

2) the radioactive and toxic materials and materials which got to the environment from the destroyed technology installations, the equipment, aggregates, products and other property;

3) carrying out of high voltage on conducting parts of technology installations, the equipment, aggregates, products and other property;

4) dangerous factors of the explosion which happened owing to the fire;

5) impact of fire-fighting substances.

Chapter 3. Indicators and classification of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of substances and materials

Article 10. Purpose of classification of substances and materials by fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk

1. Classification of substances and materials by fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk is used for establishment of requirements of fire safety in case of receipt of substances and materials, application, storage, transportation, conversion and utilization.

2. For establishment of requirements of fire safety to structure of buildings, constructions and to fire protection systems classification of construction materials by fire risk is used.

Article 11. Indicators of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of substances and materials

1. The list of indicators for assessment of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of substances and materials depending on their aggregate state is provided in the table of 1 appendix to this Federal Law.

2. Methods of measure definition of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of the substances and materials given in the table of 1 appendix to this Federal Law are established by regulating documents on fire safety.

3. Indicators of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of substances and materials are used for establishment of requirements to use of substances and materials and calculation of fire risk.

Article 12. Classification of substances and materials (except for construction, textile and tanning materials) on fire risk

1. Classification of substances and materials by fire risk is based on their properties and capability to formation of dangerous factors of the fire or explosion.

2. On combustibilities of substance and materials are subdivided into the following groups:

1) nonflammable - the substances and materials incapable to burn in the air circle. Nonflammable substances can be pozharovzryvoopasny (for example, the oxidizers or substances allocating combustible products in case of interaction with water or with each other);

2) slow-burning - the substances and materials, capable to burn in the air circle in case of impact of source of ignition, but incapable independently to burn after its removal;

3) combustible - the substances and materials capable to ignite spontaneously and also to flare up under the influence of source of ignition and to burn independently after its removal.

3. Test methods on combustibility of substances and materials are established by regulating documents on fire safety.

4. From combustible liquids allocate groups of flammable and especially dangerous flammable liquids which ignition of vapors happens at the low temperatures determined by regulating documents by fire safety.

Article 13. Classification of construction, textile and tanning materials by fire risk

1. Classification of construction, textile and tanning materials by fire risk is based on their properties and capability to formation of dangerous factors of the fire.

2. The fire risk of combustible construction, textile and tanning materials is characterized by the following properties:

1) combustibility;

2) inflammability;

3) capability of distribution of flame on surface;

4) smoke-generating capability;

5) toxicity of products of burning.

3. On combustibility construction materials are subdivided into nonflammable (NG) and combustible (G1 - G4).

4. Construction materials belong to nonflammable in case of the following parameter values of combustibility determined experimentally: temperature surplus - no more than 50 degrees Celsius, loss of mass of sample - no more than 50 percent, duration of steady flame burning - no more than 10 seconds.

5. Combustible construction materials are subdivided into the following groups:

1) slabogoryuchy (1);

2) umerennogoryuchy (2);

3) normalnogoryuchy (3);

4) silnogoryuchy (4).

6. For the combustible construction materials relating to the G1 groups and G2, when testing formation of drops of fusion is not allowed. For the combustible construction materials relating to the G3, group at testing formation of the burning fusion drops is not allowed. For nonflammable construction materials other indicators of fire risk are not determined and not normalized.

7. On inflammability combustible construction materials (including floor carpets) depending on the size of critical area density of thermal flow are subdivided into the following groups:

1) flame-resistant (In 1);

2) umerennovosplamenyaemy (In 2);

3) highly inflammable (In 3).

8. On the speed of distribution of flame on surface combustible construction materials (including floor carpets) depending on the size of critical area density of thermal flow are subdivided into the following groups:

1) not extending (RP1);

2) slaborasprostranyayushchy (RP2);

3) umerennorasprostranyayushchy (RP3);

4) silnorasprostranyayushchy (RP4).

9. On smoke-generating capability combustible construction, textile and tanning materials depending on value of coefficient of smoking are subdivided into the following groups:

1) with small smoke-generating capability (D 1);

2) with moderate smoke-generating capability (D 2);

3) with high smoke-generating capability (D 3).

10. On toxicity of products of burning combustible construction, textile and tanning materials are subdivided into the following groups:

1) low-dangerous (T 1);

2) umerennoopasny (T 2);

3) highly hazardous (T 3);

4) extremely dangerous (T 4).

11. Voided according to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of 14.07.2022 No. 276-FZ

12. For floor carpets the group of combustibility is not determined.

13. Textile and tanning materials on inflammability are subdivided on highly inflammable and flame-resistant.

14. It is necessary to apply value of index of distribution of flame (I) to classification of textile and tanning materials - the conditional dimensionless indicator characterizing capability of materials or substances to ignite, extend flame on surface and to generate heat. On distribution of flame materials are subdivided into the following groups:

1) not extending flame on surface;

2) slowly extending flame on surface;

3) quickly extending flame on surface.

15. Test methods by determination of classification indicators of fire risk of construction, textile and tanning materials are established by regulating documents on fire safety.

Chapter 4. Indicators of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk and classification of technology circles by fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk

Article 14. Purpose of classification of technology circles by fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk

Classification of technology circles by fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk is used for establishment of safe parameters of conducting engineering procedure.

Article 15. Indicators of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of technology circles

1. Fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of technology circles is characterized by indicators of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of the substances addressing in engineering procedure, and parameters of engineering procedure. The list of the indicators necessary for assessment of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of substances is provided in the table of 1 appendix to this Federal Law.

2. Methods of measure definition of fire-and-explosion hazard and fire risk of the substances which are part of technology circles are established by regulating documents on fire safety.

Article 16. Classification of technology circles by fire-and-explosion hazard

1. Technology circles on fire-and-explosion hazard are subdivided into the following groups:

1) fire-dangerous;

2) pozharovzryvoopasny;

3) explosive;

4) fireproof.

2. Environment belongs to fire-dangerous if formation of the combustible circle, and also emergence of source of ignition of sufficient capacity for emergence of the fire is possible.

3. Environment belongs to pozharovzryvoopasny if formation of mixes of oxidizer with combustible gases, vapors of flammable liquids, combustible aerosols and combustible pylyam in which in case of source of ignition initiation of explosion and (or) the fire is possible is possible.

4. Environment belongs to explosive if formation of mixes of air with combustible gases, vapors of flammable liquids, combustible liquids, combustible aerosols and combustible pylyam or fibers is possible and if in case of certain concentration of fuel and emergence of source of initiation of explosion (ignition source) she is capable to explode.

5. The space in which there are no combustible circle and (or) oxidizer belongs to fireproof circles.

Chapter 5. Classification of fire hazardous and explosive zones

Article 17. Classification purpose

Classification of fire hazardous and explosive zones is applied to the choice of electrotechnical and other equipment on extent of their protection providing their pozharovzryvobezopasny operation in the specified zone.

Warning!!!

This is not a full text of document! Document shown in Demo mode!

If you have active License, please Login, or get License for Full Access.

With Full access you can get: full text of document, original text of document in Russian, attachments (if exist) and see History and Statistics of your work.

Get License for Full Access Now

Disclaimer! This text was translated by AI translator and is not a valid juridical document. No warranty. No claim. More info

Effectively work with search system

Database include more 50000 documents. You can find needed documents using search system. For effective work you can mix any on documents parameters: country, documents type, date range, teams or tags.
More about search system

Get help

If you cannot find the required document, or you do not know where to begin, go to Help section.

In this section, we’ve tried to describe in detail the features and capabilities of the system, as well as the most effective techniques for working with the database.

You also may open the section Frequently asked questions. This section provides answers to questions set by users.

Search engine created by SoyuzPravoInform LLC.