Document from CIS Legislation database © 2003-2024 SojuzPravoInform LLC


of March 15, 1994 No. 2875-XII

(as amended on 04-03-2022)

We, people of the Republic of Belarus (Belarus),

proceeding from responsibility for the present and the future of Belarus,

understanding itself the full subject of the world community and confirming the commitment to universal values,

based on the inalienable right to self-determination, preserving national originality and sovereignty,

relying on centuries-old history of development of the Belarusian statehood, cultural and spiritual traditions,

approving rights and freedoms of man and citizen, foundations of the constitutional state and socially fair society,

wishing to ensure the peace and the civil consent, wellbeing of citizens, firmness of democracy, independence and prosperity of the Republic of Belarus,

we accept this Constitution - the Fundamental Law of the Republic of Belarus.

Section I. Bases of the constitutional system

Article 1. The Republic of Belarus - the unitary democratic social constitutional state.

The Republic of Belarus has supremacy and completeness of the power in the territory, independently performs domestic and foreign policy.

The Republic of Belarus protects the independence and territorial integrity, the constitutional system, provides legality and law and order.

Article 2. The person, its rights, freedoms and guarantees of their realization are the supreme value and the purpose of society and state.

The state is responsible before the citizen for creation of conditions for free and worthy development of the personality. The citizen otvetstven before the state for strict fulfillment of duties, assigned to it by the Constitution.

Article 3. The single source of the government and the carrier of sovereignty in the Republic of Belarus are the people. The people perform the power directly, through representative and other bodies in the forms and limits determined by the Constitution.

Any actions for change of the constitutional system and achievement of the government by violent methods, and also by other violation of the laws of the Republic of Belarus are punished according to the law.

Article 4. Democracy in the Republic of Belarus is performed on the basis of ideology of the Belarusian state, and also variety of political institutes and opinions.

The ideology of political parties, religious or other public associations, social groups cannot be established as obligatory for citizens.

Article 5. Political parties, other public associations, being effective within the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Belarus, promote realization and protection of the rights, freedoms and interests of man and citizen.

Political parties and other public associations have the right to use the state media according to the procedure, determined by the legislation.

Creation and activities of political parties, and equally in other public associations aiming at violent change of the constitutional system or conducting propaganda for war, social, race, religious and racial hatred is forbidden.

Article 6. The government in the Republic of Belarus is performed on the basis of its separation on legislative, executive and judicial. State bodies within the powers are independent: they interact among themselves, constrain and counterbalance each other.

Article 7. In the Republic of Belarus the principle of supremacy of law is established.

The constitution has the highest legal force and direct action in all territory of the Republic of Belarus. Other legal acts are published on basis and according to the Constitution.

The state, all its bodies and officials, the organizations and citizens are effective within the Constitution and acts of the legislation adopted according to it.

The legal acts or their separate provisions recognized in the procedure established by the law contradicting Constitution provisions, have no legal force.

Regulatory legal acts are subject to official publication or are brought to the general attention by other method provided by the law.

Article 8. The Republic of Belarus recognizes priority of the conventional principles of international law and provides compliance to them of the legislation.

The Republic of Belarus according to rules of international law can enter on voluntary basis interstate educations and to leave them.

The conclusion of international treaties which contradict the Constitution is not allowed.

Article 9. The territory of the Republic of Belarus is natural condition of existence and spatial limit of self-determination of the people, basis of its welfare and sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus.

The territory of Belarus is single and inaliennable.

The administrative-territorial structure of the state is determined by the law.

Article 10. Protection and protection of the state both in the territory of Belarus, and beyond its limits is guaranteed to the citizen of the Republic of Belarus.

Nobody can be deprived of nationality of the Republic of Belarus or the right to change nationality.

The citizen of the Republic of Belarus cannot be issued to foreign state if other is not provided by international treaties of the Republic of Belarus.

Acquisition and the termination of nationality are performed according to the law.

Article 11. Foreign citizens and stateless persons in the territory of Belarus have the rights and freedoms and fulfill duties on an equal basis with citizens of the Republic of Belarus if other is not determined by the Constitution, the laws and international treaties.

Article 12. The Republic of Belarus can grant asylum right to persons pursued in other states for political, religious beliefs or national identity.

Article 13. The property can be state and private.

The state grants all the equal rights for implementation of economic and other activity, except prohibited by the law, and guarantees equal protection and equal conditions for development of all patterns of ownership.

The state guarantees all equal opportunities of free use of capabilities and property for the entrepreneurial and other not forbidden by the law economic activity.

The state performs regulation of economic activity for the benefit of the person and society; provides the direction and coordination of the state and private economic activity in the social purposes.

Subsoil, waters, the woods constitute exclusive property of the state. The earth of agricultural purpose are in property of the state.

By the law also other objects which are only in property of the state can be determined, or the special procedure for their transition to private property is established, and also the exclusive right of the state on implementation of separate types of activity is affirmed.

The state guarantees to workers the right to take part in management of the organizations for the purpose of increase in efficiency of their work and improvement of social and economic level of living.

Article 14. The state governs the relations between social, national and other communities on the basis of the principles of equality before the law, respect of their rights and interests.

The relations in the social and labor sphere between state bodies, associations of employers and labor unions are performed on the principles of social partnership and interaction of the parties.

Article 15. The state is responsible for preserving historical and cultural and spiritual heritage, free development of cultures of all national communities living in the Republic of Belarus.

The state provides preserving the historical truth and memory of heroic feat of the Belarusian people in days of the Great Patriotic War.

Article 16. Religions and religions are equal before the law.

Relations of the state and the religious organizations are regulated by the law taking into account their influence on forming of spiritual, cultural and state traditions of the Belarusian people.

Activities of the religious organizations, their bodies and representatives which is directed against sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus, of its constitutional system and civil consent are forbidden or it is integrated to violation of the rights and freedoms of citizens, and also interferes with execution by citizens of their state, public, family duties or does harm to their health and morality.

Article 17. State languages in the Republic of Belarus are the Belarusian and Russian languages.

Article 18. The Republic of Belarus in the foreign policy proceeds from the principles of equality of the states, nonuse of force or threat of force, inviolability of borders, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference to internal affairs and other conventional principles and rules of international law.

The Republic of Belarus excludes military aggression from the territory against other states.

Article 19. Symbols of the Republic of Belarus as sovereign state are its National flag, the State Emblem and the National anthem. The description of the state symbols and procedure for their use are determined by the law.


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