of July 24, 1998 No. 124-FZ
About basic guarantees of the rights of the child in the Russian Federation
Accepted by the State Duma on July 3, 1998
Approved by the Federation Council on July 9, 1998
This Federal Law establishes basic guarantees of the rights and legitimate interests of the child provided by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, and the purposes of creation of legal, social and economic conditions for realization of the rights and legitimate interests of the child.
The state recognizes the childhood as important stage of human life and proceeds from the principles of priority of training of children for full-fledged life in society, development in them of socially significant and creative activity, education in them high moral qualities, patriotism and civic consciousness.
For the purposes of this Federal Law the following concepts are used:
the child - person before achievement of age by him 18 years (age of majority);
the children who are in difficult life situation - orphan children; children without parental support; handicapped children; the children with limited opportunities of health that is having shortcomings of physical and (or) mental development; children - the victims of the armed and international conflicts, environmental and technogenic catastrophes, natural disasters; children from families of refugees and displaced persons; the children who appeared in extreme conditions; children are victims of violence; the children serving custodial sanction in educational colonies; the children who are in the educational organizations for the students with deviant (socially dangerous) behavior needing special conditions of education, training and requiring special pedagogical approach (special teaching and educational facilities of the opened and closed type); the children living in needy families; children with variations in behavior; children whose activity is objectively broken as a result of the developed circumstances and who cannot overcome these circumstances independently or by means of family;
social adaptation of the child - process of active adaptation of the child who is in difficult life situation to the rules and standards of behavior accepted in society, and also process of overcoming consequences of psychological or moral injury;
social resettlement of the child - action for recovery of the social communications and functions lost by the child, completion of the circle of life support, strengthening of care of it;
social services for children - the organizations irrespective of legal forms and patterns of ownership performing actions for social servicing of children (social support, rendering social, medical, psychology and pedagogical, legal services and financial support, the organization of ensuring rest and improvement, social resettlement of the children who are in difficult life situation, to employment of such children of working-age on reaching them) and also the citizens performing without formation of legal entity business activity on social servicing of citizens, including children;
social infrastructure for children - system of objects (buildings, structures, constructions), children, necessary for life support, and also the organizations irrespective of legal forms and patterns of ownership which render social services to citizens, including children and which activities are performed for the purpose of providing full-fledged life, health protection, education, rest and improvement, development of children, satisfaction of their public requirements.
rest of children and their improvement - set of the actions aimed at the development of creative potential of children, protection and strengthening of their health, prevention of diseases in children, occupation by their physical culture, sport and tourism, forming at children of skills of healthy lifestyle, observance by them of diet and activity in the favorable environment in case of accomplishment of sanitary and hygienic and sanitary and epidemiologic requirements and requirements of safety of life and health of children;
the organizations of rest of children and their improvement - the organization (irrespective of their forms of business) seasonal or year-round action, stationary and (or) non-stationary type, with the round-the-clock or day stay, the rendering services in the organization of rest and improvement of children (the organizations of rest of children and their improvement of seasonal or year-round action, the camp organized by the educational organizations performing the organization of rest and improvement of students in vacation time (with the round-the-clock or day stay), nurseries of the camp of work and rest, nurseries of the camp of tent type, nurseries specialized (profile) the camp, nurseries of the camp of various thematic orientation). For the purpose of this Federal Law to the organizations of rest of children and their improvements are equated the individual entrepreneurs rendering services in the organization of rest and improvement of children in case of observance of the requirements established by this Federal Law;
night time - time from 22 to 6 o'clock local time.
trade in children - purchase and sale of the minor, other transactions concerning the minor, and recruitment, transportation, transfer, concealment or obtaining, equally committed for the purpose of its operation;
exploitation of children - use of occupation prostitution by minors and other forms of their sexual exploitation, chattel slavery (services) of minors, servile status of minors, unlawful taking at minor bodies and (or) fabrics, illegal adoption (adoption) of the minor from mercenary motives;
the victim of trade in children and (or) exploitation of children - the minor who was affected by trade in children and (or) exploitation of children, including involved in trade in children and (or) subjected to operation irrespective of availability or lack of its consent to implementation of the actions connected with trade in children and (or) exploitation of children.
This Federal Law governs the relations arising in connection with realization of basic guarantees of the rights and legitimate interests of the child in the Russian Federation.
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