of June 26, 1992 No. 3132-1
About the status of judges in the Russian Federation
1. Judicial authority in the Russian Federation belongs only to courts on behalf of judges and attracted in the cases established by the law to implementation of justice of representatives of the people.
2. Judicial authority is independent and is effective irrespective of the legislative and executive authorities.
3. Judges according to this Law are persons given in constitutional order authority to perform justice and the fulfilling duties on professional basis.
4. Judges are independent and submit only to the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the law. In the activities for justice implementation they are accountable to nobody.
5. Disrespect for court or judges attracts the responsibility established by the law.
6. Requirements and orders of judges when implementing of powers by them are obligatory for one and all state bodies, public associations, officials, other legal entities and physical persons. Information, documents and their copies necessary for justice implementation are represented upon the demand of judges gratuitously. Non-execution of requirements and orders of judges attracts the responsibility established by the law.
1. All judges in the Russian Federation have the single status. Features of legal status of some categories of judges, including judges of public vessels, are determined by the Federal Laws, and in the cases provided by the Federal Laws, also the laws of subjects of the Russian Federation.
Features of legal status of judges of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation are determined by the Federal constitutional Law.
2. And other circumstances provided by the law qualification classes according to the procedure, provided by this Law are appropriated to judges depending on post, length of service in judgeship. Assignment to the judge of qualification class does not mean change of its status concerning other judges in the Russian Federation.
1. The judge shall observe strictly the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal constitutional Laws and the Federal Laws. The judge of the constitutional (authorized) court of the subject of the Russian Federation, the magistrate judge shall observe also the constitution (charter) of the subject of the Russian Federation and the laws of the subject of the Russian Federation.
2. The judge in case of execution of the powers, and also in the off-duty relations shall avoid everything that could belittle authority of judicial authority, advantage of the judge or to raise doubts in its objectivity, justice and impartiality.
In case of conflict of interest the judge participating in proceeedings shall declare rejection or inform participants of process of the current situation.
The conflict of interest is understood as situation in case of which personal interest (direct or indirect) judges influences or can influence proper execution of job responsibilities by it and in case of which there arises or can be contradiction between personal interest of the judge and the rights and legitimate interests of citizens, the organizations, societies, the municipality, the subject of the Russian Federation or the Russian Federation, capable to lead to damnification to the rights and legitimate interests of citizens, the organizations, societies, the municipality, the subject of the Russian Federation or the Russian Federation.
Personal interest of the judge which influences or can influence proper execution of job responsibilities by him, is understood as possibility of obtaining by the judge in case of execution of job responsibilities of the income in type of material benefit or other illegal benefit directly to the judge, members of his family or other persons and the organizations with whom the judge is connected by financial or other liabilities.
1) to replace other state positions, positions of public service, municipal positions, positions of municipal service, to be the arbitration judge, the arbitrator;
2) to belong to political parties, to financially support the specified parties and to participate in their political actions and other political activities;
3) publicly to express the relation to political parties and other public associations;
4) to be engaged in business activity personally or through authorized representatives, including to take part in management of business entity irrespective of its form of business;
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