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FEDERAL LAW OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

of December 21, 1994 No. 68-FZ

About protection of the population and the territories against emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature

(as amended on 11-06-2021)

Accepted by the State Duma on November 11, 1994

This Federal Law determines general for the Russian Federation organization-legal regulations in the field of protection of citizens of the Russian Federation, the foreign citizens and stateless persons which are in the territory of the Russian Federation (further - the population), all land, water, airspace within the Russian Federation or its part, subjects to production and social appointment, and also environment (further - the territories) from emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature (further emergency situations).

Operation of this Federal Law extends to the relations arising in the course of activities of public authorities of the Russian Federation, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies, and also the companies, organizations and the organizations irrespective of their form of business (further - the organizations) and the populations in the field of protection of the population and the territories against emergency situations.

Chapter I. General provisions

Article 1. Basic concepts

Emergency situation is the situation in certain territory which developed as a result of accident, natural hazard, catastrophic crash, spread of the disease constituting danger to people around, natural or other disaster which can entail or entailed the human victims, damage to health of people or the environment, considerable material losses and violation of conditions of life activity of people.

The prevention of emergency situations is complex of the events held beforehand and directed to the greatest possible reduction of risk of emergence of emergency situations, and also to preserving human health, decrease in the sizes of environmental damage and material losses in case of their origin.

Liquidation of emergency situations are the rescue and other urgent works which are carried out in case of emergency situations and directed to rescuing of life and preserving human health, decrease in the sizes of environmental damage and material losses, and also to localization of zones of emergency situations, cancellation of characteristic factors, dangerous to them.

The zone of emergency situation is the territory in which there was emergency situation.

Specialized technical means of the notification and informing the population in places of mass stay of people are the specially created technical devices performing acceptance, processing and transfer of audio-and (or) audiovisual, and also other messages on origin threat about emergence of emergency situations and rules of conduct of the population.

The mode of functioning of governing bodies and forces of Universal State System of Prevention and Response to ES are the procedure for the organization of activities of governing bodies and forces of Universal State System of Prevention and Response to ES determined depending on situation, forecasting of threat of emergency situation and emergence of emergency situation and the main events held by the specified bodies and forces in the mode of daily activities in case of introduction of high alert or emergency situation.

Level of response to emergency situation (further - reaction level) is the ready state of governing bodies and forces of Universal State System of Prevention and Response to ES to liquidation of emergency situation demanding from public authorities of the Russian Federation, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies and the organizations of acceptance of additional measures for protection of the population and the territories from emergency situation depending on classification of emergency situations and nature of development of emergency situation.

The notification of the population about emergency situations is bringing to the population of signals of the notification and emergency information on the dangers arising in case of threat of origin or emergence of emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature, and also when conducting military operations or owing to these actions about rules of conduct of the population and need of holding actions for protection.

Informing the population on emergency situations is bringing to the population through mass media and on other information channels about the predicted and arisen emergency situations, the taken measures for safety of the population and the territories, acceptances and methods of protection, and also carrying out promotion of knowledge in the field of civil defense, protection of the population and the territories from emergency situations, including safety of people on water objects, and ensuring fire safety.

The complex system of the emergency notification of the population about threat of origin or about emergence of emergency situations is the element of the warning system of the population about emergency situations representing the complex of program technical means of warning systems and monitoring of natural hazards and technogenic processes providing bringing signals of the notification and emergency information to governing bodies of Universal State System of Prevention and Response to ES and to the population in the automatic and (or) automated modes.

The zone of the emergency notification of the population is the territory subject to risk of emergence of the high-growth natural hazards and technogenic processes posing direct threat of life and to health of the people who are on it.

The territory subject to risk of emergence of high-growth natural hazards and technogenic processes is site land, water or airspace either crucial or potentially dangerous object of production and social value, carried to the specified territory by forecasting of threat of emergence of emergency situations and assessment of social and economic effects of emergency situations.

High-growth natural hazards and technogenic processes are the negative phenomena and processes determined during forecasting of threat of emergence of emergency situations which localization and liquidation require advance preparation of forces and means of Universal State System of Prevention and Response to ES.

Crucial object is object, violation or the termination of functioning of which will lead to loss of management of economy of the Russian Federation, the subject of the Russian Federation or administrative and territorial unit of the subject of the Russian Federation, its irreversible negative change (destruction) or essential decrease in health and safety of the population.

Potentially dangerous object is object on which buildings and constructions of the increased level of responsibility, or object, on which perhaps simultaneous stay more than five thousand people are located.

Governing bodies of Universal State System of Prevention and Response to ES are the bodies created for coordination of activities of federal executive bodies, executive bodies of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies, the organizations in the field of protection of the population and the territories against the emergency situations and forces attracted to the prevention and liquidation of emergency situations.

Preparation of the population in the field of protection against emergency situations is system of actions for training of the population in actions in case of threat of origin and emergence of emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature.

Article 2. Legal regulation of the relations in the field of protection of the population and the territories against emergency situations

Legal regulation of the relations in the field of protection of the population and the territories against emergency situations is based on the conventional principles and rules of international law and is performed by this Federal Law, the Federal Laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation adopted according to it. Local government bodies within the powers can adopt the municipal legal acts governing the relations arising in connection with protection of the population and the territories against emergency situations.

Article 3. Purposes of this Federal Law

The purposes of this Federal Law are:

prevention of origin and development of emergency situations;

decrease in the extent of damage and losses from emergency situations;

liquidation of emergency situations;

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