of December 27, 1991 No. 2124-1
About mass media
In the Russian Federation
search, obtaining, production and distribution of mass information,
organization of mass media, ownership, use and order them,
production, acquisition, storage and operation of the technical devices and the equipment, raw materials and materials intended for production and distribution of products of mass media
are not subject to restrictions, except for stipulated by the legislation the Russian Federation about mass media.
For the purposes of this Law:
mass information is understood as the printing, audio-, audiovisual and other messages and materials intended for the unrestricted group of people;
mass media are understood as the periodic printing edition, online media, TV channel, radio channel, TV program, radio program, the video program, the film chronicle program, other form of periodic distribution of mass information as the permanent name (name);
the periodic printing edition is understood as the newspaper, the log, the almanac, the bulletin, other edition having the permanent name (name), the current issue and which is published at least once a year;
radio - the TV, video, film chronicle program is understood as the set of periodic audio-, audiovisual messages and materials (transfers) having the permanent name (name) and which is published (in air) at least once a year;
products of mass media are understood as the circulation or part of circulation of separate number of the periodic printing edition, separate release of TV channel, radio channel, radio program, TV program, the film chronicle program, circulation or part of circulation audio-or videos of the program, separate release or updating of online media, separate release of other mass media;
distribution of products of mass media is understood as sale, subscription, delivery, distribution of the periodic printing edition, audio-or videos of the program, broadcasting of TV channel, radio channel (television broadcasting, broadcasting), broadcasting of TV program, radio program as a part of respectively TV channel, radio channel, demonstration of the film chronicle program, provision of access to online media, different ways of distribution;
specialized mass media are understood as such mass media, for registration or distribution of products of which this Law establishes special rules;
the editorial office of mass media is understood as the organization, organization, the company or the citizen, the consolidation of citizens performing production and release of mass media;
the journalist is understood as person who is engaged in editing, creation, collection or preparation of messages and materials for the editorial office of the registered mass media, related by employment or other contractual relations or engaged in such activities for its authorization;
the publisher is understood as publishing house, other organization, the company (entrepreneur) performing material logistics of production of mass media, and also the legal entity or the citizen equated to the publisher for whom these activities are not the main or is not the main source of the income;
the TV channel, radio channel is understood as the set created according to broadcasting schedule (program schedule) and published (air) under the permanent name (name) and with the established frequency TV, radio programs and (or) according to others audiovisual, sound messages and materials. The rules established by this Law and other legal acts of the Russian Federation for TV program, radio program are applied to TV channel, radio channel if other is not established by this Law;
the broadcaster is understood as the Russian legal entity performing forming of TV channel or radio channel and its distribution in accordance with the established procedure based on the license for television broadcasting, broadcasting;
the online media is understood as the website on the Internet registered as mass media according to this Law;
obligatory public TV channels and (or) radio channels are understood as TV channels and (or) radio channels which are determined according to this Federal Law and broadcastings without collection of payment from consumers (TV viewers, radio listeners) for the right of viewing, listening are subject to distribution in all circles;
the research of amount of spectator audience of TV channels (TV programs, telecasts) are understood as systematic collection, record, systematization and data analysis, the TV channels (TV programs, telecasts) relating to spectator preferences when viewing, and also transfer (provision, distribution, access) of the received results of researches;
the registering body is understood as the federal executive body authorized by the Government of the Russian Federation to perform registration of mass media, or its territorial authority.
Censorship of mass information, that is the requirement from the editorial office of mass media from officials, state bodies, the organizations, organizations or public associations it is preliminary to approve messages and materials (except cases when the official is the author or the interviewee), and imposing of prohibition on distribution of messages and materials, their separate parts is equal, - it is not allowed.
Creation and financing of the organizations, organizations, bodies or positions, into tasks or functions of which are included implementation of censorship of mass information, - are not allowed.
Use of mass media for the purpose of making of penal acts, for disclosure of the data which are the state or other specially protected by the law secret for distribution of the materials which are containing public calls for implementation of terrorist activities, or publicly justifying terrorism, other extremist materials, and also materials propagandizing pornography, cult of violence and cruelty and the materials containing strong language is not allowed.
Use in radio - TV, video is forbidden, film programs, documentary and feature films, and also in information computer files and programs of processing of the information texts relating to special mass media, the hidden inserts and other techniques and methods of distribution of information influencing subconsciousness of people and (or) exerting adverse effect on their health, and distribution of information on public association or other organization, included in the published list of public and religious associations, other organizations on which the court makes the decision on liquidation which took legal effect is equal or you will lock activities for the bases provided by the Federal Law of July 25, 2002 N114-FZ "About Counteraction of Extremist Activities" (further - the Federal Law "About Counteraction of Extremist Activities"), without specifying on that, that the relevant public association or other organization are liquidated or their activities are prohibited.
Are prohibited distribution in mass media, and also in information and telecommunication networks of data on methods, methods of development, production and use, places of acquisition of drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors, new potentially dangerous psychoactive agents, about methods and places of cultivation of the plants containing drugs or psychotropic substances or their precursors, promotion of any benefits of use of separate drugs, psychotropic substances, their analogs or precursors, new potentially dangerous psychoactive agents, the plants containing drugs or psychotropic substances or their precursors, and distribution of other information which distribution is forbidden by the Federal Laws.
When publicizing counter-terrorist operation distribution in mass media of data on special means, techniques and tactics of carrying out such transaction is forbidden if their distribution can interfere with carrying out counter-terrorist operation or threaten life and human health. The information about the staff of the special divisions, persons rendering assistance in carrying out such transaction, identification, warning, suppression and disclosure of act of terrorism and about members of families of specified persons can be made public according to legal acts of the Russian Federation for the state secret and personal data.
Distribution in mass media, and also in information and telecommunication networks of information on the minor injured with illegal actions (failure to act), including surnames, names, middle names, photo and video images of such minor, his parents and other legal representatives, birth date of such minor, audio recording of its voice, the place of his residence or the place of temporary stay, the place of his study or work, other information allowing to identify directly or indirectly the personality of such minor, except as specified, provided by Items 1 - 3 parts four of article 41 of this Law is forbidden.
Distribution in mass media, and also in information and telecommunication networks of the data containing instructions for self-made production of explosives and destructive devices is forbidden.
Distribution in mass media, and also in information and telecommunication networks of information containing offers on retail sale by remote method of alcoholic products, and (or) alcohol-containing food products, and (or) ethyl alcohol, and (or) alcohol-containing non-food products which retail sale is limited or prohibited by the legislation on state regulation of production and turnover of ethyl alcohol, alcoholic and alcohol-containing products and on restriction of consumption (drinking) of alcoholic products is forbidden.
The legislation of the Russian Federation on mass media consists of this Law and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation published according to it.
If for the organization and activities of mass media other rules are provided by the interstate agreement signed by the Russian Federation, than established by this Law rules of the interstate agreement are applied.
This Law is applied to the mass media established in the Russian Federation, and for created beyond its limits - only in the part concerning distribution of their products in the Russian Federation.
Legal entities and citizens of other states, stateless persons have the rights and perform the duties provided by this Law on an equal basis with the organizations and citizens of the Russian Federation if other is not established by the law.
The legal entity registered in foreign state, or the foreign structure without formation of legal entity irrespective of their form of business, physical person distributing the printing, audio-, audiovisual and other messages and materials intended for the unrestricted group of people (including with use of the Internet), can be acknowledged as the foreign mass media performing functions of the foreign agent if they receive money and (or) other property from foreign states, their state bodies, the international and foreign organizations, foreign citizens, stateless persons or persons authorized by them and (or) from the Russian legal entities receiving money and (or) other property from the specified sources. According to the procedure, established by authorized federal executive body, to the legal entity registered in foreign state, or foreign structure without formation of legal entity irrespective of their form of business, to physical person, distributing the printing, audio-, audiovisual and other messages and materials intended for the unrestricted group of people (including with use of the Internet) and receiving money and (or) other property from foreign states, their state bodies, the international and foreign organizations, foreign citizens, stateless persons or persons authorized by them and (or) from the Russian legal entities receiving money and (or) other property from the specified sources provisions of the Federal Law of January 12, 1996 No. 7-FZ "About non-profit organizations" can be applied, regulating legal status of the non-profit organization performing functions of the foreign agent, except for special provisions which are applied only to the organizations created in the form of non-profit organization.
The foreign mass media performing functions of the foreign agent perform the rights and duties provided by the Federal Law of January 12, 1996 No. 7-FZ "About non-profit organizations" for the non-profit organizations performing functions of the foreign agent.
The federal executive body performing functions on development and realization of state policy and normative legal regulation in the field of registration of non-profit organizations keeps the register of the foreign mass media performing functions of the foreign agent. Information on the foreign mass media performing functions of the foreign agent and on persons specified in part seven of this Article joins in this register based on the decision made according to part six of this Article.
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