of August 23, 1996 No. 127-FZ
About science and the state scientific and technical policy
Accepted by the State Duma of the Russian Federation on July 12, 1996
Approved by Council of the Russian Federation on August 7, 1996
This Federal Law governs the relations between subjects of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities, public authorities and consumers scientific and (or) scientific and technical products (works and services), including on provision of the state support of innovative activities.
The legislation on science and the state scientific and technical policy consists of this Federal Law and the laws adopted according to it and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, and also the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation.
basic scientific research - the experimental or theoretical activities directed to receipt of new knowledge of the main patterns of structure, functioning and development of the person, society, the environment;
applied scientific research - the researches directed mainly to use of new knowledge for achievement of the practical purposes and the solution of specific objectives.
exploratory scientific research - the researches directed to receipt of new knowledge for the purpose of their subsequent practical application (the oriented scientific research) and (or) to use of new knowledge (applied scientific research) and conducted by accomplishment of research works.
Scientific and technical activities - the activities directed to obtaining, use of new knowledge for the solution of technological, engineering, economic, social, humanitarian and other problems, ensuring functioning of science, the equipment and production as single system.
Experimental developments - activities which are based on knowledge acquired as a result of carrying out scientific research or on the basis of practical experience and are directed to preserving life and health of the person, creation of new materials, products, processes, devices, services, systems or methods and their further enhancement.
The state scientific and technical policy - component of social and economic policy which expresses the relation of the state to scientific and scientific and technical activities determines the purposes, the directions, forms of activities of public authorities of the Russian Federation in the field of science, the equipment and realization of achievements of science and technology.
Scientific and (or) scientific and technical result - the product of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities containing new knowledge or decisions and fixed on any information carrier.
Scientific and (or) scientific and technical products - scientific and (or) scientific and technical result, including the result of intellectual activities intended for realization.
Grants - the cash and other means donated and irretrievable citizens and legal entities, including foreign citizens and foreign legal entities, and also the international organizations which acquired the right to provision of grants in the territory of the Russian Federation implementation of specific scientific, scientific and technical programs and projects, innovative projects, carrying out specific scientific research on the conditions provided by grantors.
Commercialization of scientific and (or) scientific and technical results - activities for involvement in economic circulation of scientific and (or) scientific and technical results.
Innovations - put into practice new or much the improved product (goods, service) or process, new sales method or new organizational method in business practice, the organization of workplaces or in external relations.
The innovative project - complex of the actions for implementation of innovations, including for commercialization of scientific and (or) scientific and technical results directed to achievement of economic effect. The innovative project is characterized by high admissible risk level, possibility of not achievement of the planned result, including economic effect of implementation of such project.
Innovative infrastructure - set of the organizations promoting implementation of innovative projects including provision of managerial, material, financial, information, personnel, consulting and organizational services.
Innovative activities - the activities (including scientific, technological, organizational, financial and business activity) directed to implementation of innovative projects, and also to creation of innovative infrastructure and ensuring its activities.
The scientific project and (or) the scientific and technical project - complex of the coordinated and managed actions which are directed to receipt of scientific and (or) scientific and technical results and which implementation is limited to time and the attracted resources.
The center of collective use of the scientific equipment - structural division (set of structural divisions) which is created by the scientific organization and (or) the educational organization has scientific and (or) processing equipment, qualified personnel and provides for the benefit of the third parties performance of works and rendering services for carrying out scientific research, and also implementation of experimental developments.
Unique scientific installation - the complex of the scientific equipment which does not have analogs in the Russian Federation, functioning as a unit and created by the scientific organization and (or) the educational organization for the purpose of receipt of scientific results which achievement is impossible when using other equipment.
Venture and (or) direct funding of the innovative project - the financial provision of the innovative project at the expense of the means of budgets of budget system of the Russian Federation and other sources provided or not prohibited by the legislation of the Russian Federation performed by institute of innovative development, other organizations and funds and physical persons by means of participation in the authorized (share) capital of the commercial organizations, the acquisitions of rights connected with such participation, acquisitions of investment shares of mutual investment funds, participations in funds, participations in agreements of investment partnerships, participations in other forms of the collective investments based on the principles of joint investment of money within general investment strategy (policy) and joint participation with other investors in profit distribution and losses from investment, provision of loans other debt instruments (including with condition of their converting, offsetting and (or) innovation), issues of guarantees and guarantees, provisions of grants, credits and (or) uses of other forms of investment of capital which are not contradicting the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Institute of innovative development - the commercial or non-profit organization (her legal successor) created (including by reorganization) and (or) the performing activities based on the Federal Law, the decree or the order of the President of the Russian Federation, the act of the Government of the Russian Federation, the law or other regulatory legal act of the subject of the Russian Federation, being the receiver of means of the state support in the Russian Federation allowed by the legislation to form, independently performing innovative activities and (or) being subject of innovative activities to which the Russian Federation or subjects of the Russian Federation provide funds for support to the legal entities and physical persons performing innovative activities. The list of federal institutes of innovative development with indication of the federal executive bodies performing coordination of their activities affirms the Government of the Russian Federation. Lists of regional institutes of innovative development with indication of executive bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation performing coordination of their activities affirm the supreme executive bodies of the government of subjects of the Russian Federation.
1. Scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities are performed according to the procedure, established by this Federal Law, physical persons - citizens of the Russian Federation, and also foreign citizens, stateless persons within the rights established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and the legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation and legal entities under condition if scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities are provided by their constituent documents.
2. Public authorities of the Russian Federation according to this Federal Law:
guarantee to subjects of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities freedom of creativity, granting them option of the directions and methods of carrying out scientific research and experimental developments;
guarantee to subjects of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities protection against unfair competition;
recognize the right to reasonable risk in scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities;
provide freedom of access to scientific and scientific and technical information, except as specified, stipulated by the legislation to the Russian Federation concerning the state, official or trade secret;
guarantee training for the scientific organizations;
guarantee financing of the projects which are carried out according to state orders.
1. Scientist (researcher) is the citizen having necessary qualification and who is professionally engaged in scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities.
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