of August 23, 1996 No. 127-FZ
About science and the state scientific and technical policy
Accepted by the State Duma of the Russian Federation on July 12, 1996
Approved by Council of the Russian Federation on August 7, 1996
This Federal Law governs the relations between subjects of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities, public authorities and consumers scientific and (or) scientific and technical products (works and services), including on provision of the state support of innovative activities.
The legislation on science and the state scientific and technical policy consists of this Federal Law and the laws adopted according to it and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, and also the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation.
basic scientific research - the experimental or theoretical activities directed to receipt of new knowledge of the main regularities of structure, functioning and development of the person, society, the environment;
applied scientific research - the researches directed mainly to use of new knowledge for achievement of the practical purposes and the solution of specific objectives.
exploratory scientific research - the researches directed to receipt of new knowledge for the purpose of their subsequent practical application (the oriented scientific research) and (or) to use of new knowledge (applied scientific research) and conducted by accomplishment of research works.
Scientific and technical activities - the activities directed to obtaining, use of new knowledge for the solution of technological, engineering, economic, social, humanitarian and other problems, ensuring functioning of science, the equipment and production as single system.
Experimental developments - activities which are based on knowledge acquired as a result of carrying out scientific research or on the basis of practical experience and are directed to preserving life and health of the person, creation of new materials, products, processes, devices, services, systems or methods and their further enhancement.
The state scientific and technical policy - component of social and economic policy which expresses the relation of the state to scientific and scientific and technical activities determines the purposes, the directions, forms of activities of public authorities of the Russian Federation in the field of science, the equipment and realization of achievements of science and technology.
Scientific and (or) scientific and technical result - the product of scientific and (or) scientific and technical activities containing new knowledge or decisions and fixed on any information carrier.
Scientific and (or) scientific and technical products - scientific and (or) scientific and technical result, including the result of intellectual activities intended for realization.
Grants - the cash and other means donated and irretrievable citizens and legal entities, including foreign citizens and foreign legal entities, and also the international organizations which acquired the right to provision of grants in the territory of the Russian Federation implementation of specific scientific, scientific and technical programs and projects, innovative projects, carrying out specific scientific research on the conditions provided by grantors.
Commercialization of scientific and (or) scientific and technical results - activities for involvement in economic circulation of scientific and (or) scientific and technical results.
Innovations - put into practice new or much the improved product (goods, service) or process, new sales method or new organizational method in business practice, the organization of workplaces or in external relations.
The innovative project - complex of the actions for implementation of innovations, including for commercialization of scientific and (or) scientific and technical results directed to achievement of economic effect.
Innovative infrastructure - set of the organizations promoting implementation of innovative projects including provision of managerial, material, financial, information, personnel, consulting and organizational services.
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