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FEDERAL LAW OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

of January 10, 2002 No. 7-FZ

About environmental protection

(as amended on 31-07-2020)

Accepted by the State Duma of the Russian Federation on December 20, 2001

Approved by Council of the Russian Federation on December 26, 2001

According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation everyone has the right to the favorable environment, everyone shall keep the nature and the environment, to make thrifty use of natural wealth which are basis of sustainable development, life and activities of the people living in the territory of the Russian Federation.

This Federal Law determines the legal basis of state policy in the field of environmental protection providing the balanced solution of social and economic tasks, preserving the favorable environment, biological diversity and natural resources for the purpose of requirements satisfaction present and future generations, strengthening of law and order in the field of environmental protection and providing ecological safety.

This Federal Law governs the relations in the field of interaction of society and the nature arising when implementing the economic and other activity connected with impact on the environment as the most important component of the environment which is life basis on Earth within the territory of the Russian Federation, and also on the continental shelf and in exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation.

Chapter I. General provisions

Article 1. Basic concepts

In this Federal Law the following basic concepts are used:

the environment - set of components of the environment, natural and natural and anthropogenous objects, and also anthropogenous objects;

the environment (further also - the nature) - set of components of the environment, natural and natural and anthropogenous objects;

environment components - the earth, subsoil, soils, surface and underground water, atmospheric air, vegetable, fauna and other organisms, and also ozone layer of the atmosphere and the near-earth space providing in total favorable conditions for existence of life on Earth;

natural object - natural ecological system, natural landscape and elements constituting them which kept the natural properties;

natural and anthropogenous object - the natural object changed as a result of economic and other activity and (or) the object created by the person, having properties of natural object and having recreational and protective value;

anthropogenous object - the object created by the person for ensuring his social requirements and which does not have properties of natural objects;

natural ecological system - objectively existing part of the environment which has space and territorial borders and in which live (plants, animal and other organisms) and its lifeless elements interact as single functional whole and are connected among themselves by exchange of substance and energy;

natural complex - complex functionally and the natural objects which are naturally connected among themselves combined by geographical and other corresponding signs;

the natural landscape - the territory which did not undergo to change in result of economic and other activity and is characterized by combination of certain types of land relief, the soils, vegetation created in uniform climatic conditions;

environmental protection - the activities of public authorities of the Russian Federation, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies, public associations and non-profit organizations, legal entities and physical persons directed to preserving and recovery of the environment, rational use and reproduction of natural resources, prevention of negative impact of economic and other activity on the environment and liquidation of its effects (further also - nature protection activities);

quality of the environment - state of environment which is characterized by physical, chemical, biological and other indicators and (or) their set;

the favorable environment - the environment which quality provides steady functioning of natural ecological systems, natural and natural and anthropogenous objects;

negative impact on the environment - impact of economic and other activity which effects lead to negative changes of quality of the environment;

natural resources - environment components, natural objects and natural and anthropogenous objects which are used or can be used when implementing economic and other activity as power sources, products of production and consumer goods and have consumer value;

use of natural resources - operation of natural resources, their involvement in economic circulation, including all types of impact on them in the course of economic and other activity;

environmental pollution - receipt to the environment of substance and (or) energy, property, location or the number of whom make negative impact on the environment;

pollutant - substance or mix of substances and microorganisms which in the quantity and (or) concentration exceeding the standard rates established for chemicals, including radioactive, other materials and microorganisms make negative impact on the environment, life, health of the person;

standard rates in the field of environmental protection - the established standard rates of quality of the environment and standard rates of admissible impact on it in case of which observance steady functioning of natural ecological systems is provided and biological diversity remains;

standard rates of quality of the environment - standard rates which are established according to physical, chemical, biological and other indicators for assessment of state of environment and in case of which observance the favorable environment is provided;

standard rates of admissible impact on the environment - standard rates which are established according to indicators of impact of economic and other activity on the environment and in case of which standard rates of quality of the environment are observed;

standard rates of permissible anthropogenous load on the environment standard rates which are established according to the size of admissible cumulative impact of all sources on the environment and (or) separate components of the environment within the specific territories and (or) water areas and in case of which observance steady functioning of natural ecological systems is provided and biological diversity remains;

standard rates of admissible emissions - norms of emissions of pollutants in atmospheric air which are determined as amount or mass of chemicals or mix of chemicals, microorganisms, other substances as activity ratios of radioactive materials, admissible for emission in atmospheric air by stationary sources;

standard rates of admissible dumpings - standard rates of dumpings of pollutants as a part of sewage in water objects which are determined as amount or mass of chemicals or mix of chemicals, microorganisms, other substances as activity ratios of radioactive materials, admissible for dumping into water objects stationary sources;

standard rates of threshold limit values of chemicals, including radioactive, other materials and microorganisms (further also standard rates of threshold limit values) - standard rates which are established according to indicators of maximum permissible content of chemicals, including radioactive, other materials and microorganisms in the environment and which non-compliance can lead to environmental pollution, degradation of natural ecological systems;

standard rates of admissible physical impacts - standard rates which are established according to levels of admissible impact of physical factors on the environment and in case of which observance standard rates of quality of the environment are provided;

temporarily permitted emissions - the amount or mass of chemicals or mix of chemicals, microorganisms, other substances permitted for emission in atmospheric air and established for the operating stationary sources for the purpose of achievement of standard rates of admissible emissions for accomplishment of the actions plan on environmental protection or achievements of technological standard rates for program implementation of increase in ecological efficiency;

temporarily permitted dumpings - the amount or mass of chemicals or mix of chemicals, microorganisms, other substances in sewage permitted for dumping into water objects for accomplishment of the actions plan for environmental protection or achievements of technological standard rates for program implementation of increase in ecological efficiency;

environmental impact assessment - type of activity on identification, the analysis and accounting of direct, indirect and other effects of impact on the environment of the planned economic and other activity for the purpose of decision making about opportunity or impossibility of its implementation;

the state environmental monitoring (the state monitoring of the environment) - complex observations of state of environment, including components of the environment, natural ecological systems, behind the processes happening in them, the phenomena, assessment and the forecast of changes of state of environment;

paragraph thirtieth ceased to be valid;

control in the field of environmental protection (environmental control) - the system of measures directed to prevention, identification and suppression of violation of the law in the field of environmental protection, ensuring compliance by legal entities and individual entrepreneurs of requirements, including standard rates and regulating documents, federal regulations and rules in the field of environmental protection;

requirements in the field of environmental protection (further also - nature protection requirements) - the compulsory provisions shown to economic and other activity, restrictions or their set established by the laws, other regulatory legal acts, standard rates in the field of environmental protection, federal regulations and rules of environmental protection and other regulating documents in the field of environmental protection;

environmental audit - independent, complex, documentary assessment of observance by the legal entity or individual entrepreneur of requirements, including standard rates and regulating documents, federal regulations and rules, in the field of environmental protection, requirements of international standards and preparation of recommendations about improvement of such activities;

the best available technology - the production technology of products (goods), performance of works, rendering services determined on the basis of modern achievements of science and technology and the best combination of criteria of goal achievement of environmental protection on condition of availability of technical capability of its application;

harm to the environment - the negative change of the environment as a result of its pollution which entailed degradation of natural ecological systems and depletion of natural resources;

environmental risk - probability of the approach of the event having adverse effects for the environment and caused by negative impact of economic and other activity, emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature;

objects of natural heritage - the natural objects, natural monuments, geological and physiographic educations and strictly limited zones, natural noteworthy places falling under criteria of outstanding universal value and determined by the Convention on protection of the world cultural and natural heritage;

objects of the world natural heritage - the objects of natural heritage included in the List of the world heritage;

ecological safety - condition of security of the environment and the vital interests of the person from possible negative impact of economic and other activity, emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature, their effects.

the substances destroying ozone layer (further - ozone-depleting substances), - chemicals and their mixes which list is determined by the Government of the Russian Federation according to international treaties of the Russian Federation in the field of protection of ozone layer of the atmosphere;

the address of ozone-depleting substances - production, use, transportation, storage, recuperation, recovery, recirculation (recycling) and destruction of ozone-depleting substances, import to the Russian Federation and export from the Russian Federation of ozone-depleting substances;

recuperation of ozone-depleting substances - extraction, collection and storage of the ozone-depleting substances containing in machines and the equipment, their components, containers during their maintenance or before their conclusion from operation;

recovery of ozone-depleting substances - processing of the recuperated ozone-depleting substances by filtering, drying, distillation, chemical processing for the purpose of recovery of consumer properties of ozone-depleting substances;

recirculation (recycling) of ozone-depleting substances - reuse of the recuperated ozone-depleting substances after their recovery;

destruction of ozone-depleting substances - the process of destruction of ozone-depleting substances leading to their decomposition or transformation into the substances which are not ozone-depleting substances;

consumption of ozone-depleting substances in the Russian Federation - amount of the ozone-depleting substances and ozone-depleting substances imported into the Russian Federation made in the Russian Federation, except for amounts of ozone-depleting substances, which:

are exported from the Russian Federation;

are made in the Russian Federation and are liable to destruction using the technologies approved according to the procedure, established by international treaties of the Russian Federation;

are made in the Russian Federation and are used only as raw materials for production of other chemicals;

are made in the Russian Federation or are imported into the Russian Federation for providing the main types of application determined according to international treaties of the Russian Federation;

the object making negative impact on the environment - capital construction project and (or) other object, and also their set combined by single appointment and (or) inseparably linked physically or technologically and located within one or several parcels of land;

complex ecological permission - the document which is issued by authorized federal executive body to the legal entity or the individual entrepreneur performing economic and (or) other activity on the object making negative impact on the environment and contains requirements, obligatory for accomplishment, in the field of environmental protection;

technological standard rates - standard rates of emissions, dumpings of pollutants, standard rates of admissible physical impacts which are established using technological indicators;

technological indicators - indicators of concentration of pollutants, amount and (or) lot of emissions, dumpings of pollutants, formation of production wastes and consumption, water consumption and use of energy resources counting on unit of time or unit of the made products (goods), the performed work, the rendered service;

technical standard rates - standard rates which are established concerning engines of portable sources of environmental pollution according to levels of admissible impact on the environment;

stationary source of environmental pollution (further - stationary source) - source of environmental pollution which location is determined using single state system of coordinates or which can be moved by means of portable source of environmental pollution;

portable source of environmental pollution - the vehicle which engine during its work is source of environmental pollution;

cumulative harm to the environment - the harm to the environment which resulted from last economic and other activity which obligations on elimination were not executed or were executed not in full;

objects of cumulative harm to the environment - the territory and the water area on which cumulative harm to the environment, capital construction projects and subjects to placement of waste which are source of cumulative harm to the environment is revealed;

system of automatic control - complex of the technical means providing automatic measurements and accounting of indicators of emissions of pollutants and (or) dumpings of pollutants, fixing and information transfer about indicators of emissions of pollutants and (or) dumpings of pollutants into the state register of the objects making negative impact on the environment.

Article 2. The legislation in the field of environmental protection

1. The legislation in the field of environmental protection is based on the Constitution of the Russian Federation and consists of this Federal Law, other Federal Laws, and also other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation accepted according to them.

2. This Federal Law acts on all territory of the Russian Federation.

3. This Federal Law acts on the continental shelf and in exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation according to rules of international law and the Federal Laws and is aimed at providing preserving the marine environment.

4. The relations arising in the field of environmental protection as basis of life and activities of the people living in the territory of the Russian Federation for the purpose of providing their rights to the favorable environment are regulated by international treaties of the Russian Federation, this Federal Law, other Federal Laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation.

5. The relations arising in the field of protection and rational use of natural resources, their preserving and recovery are regulated by international treaties of the Russian Federation, the land, water, forest legislation, the legislation on subsoil, fauna, other legislation in the field of environmental protection and environmental management.

6. The relations arising in the field of environmental protection in that measure in what it is necessary for ensuring sanitary and epidemiologic wellbeing of the population, are regulated by the legislation on sanitary and epidemiologic wellbeing of the population and the legislation on health protection, other aimed at providing the environment, favorable for the person, with the legislation.

7. The relations in the field of environmental protection arising in case of establishment of mandatory requirements to products, including buildings and constructions (further - products), or to products and the design processes connected with requirements to products (including researches), productions, constructions, installation, adjustment, operation, storage, transportation, realization and utilization, are regulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation on technical regulation.

Article 3. Basic principles of environmental protection

The economic and other activity of public authorities of the Russian Federation, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies, legal entities and physical persons making impact on the environment shall be performed on the basis of the following principles:

respect for human right on the favorable environment;

providing favorable conditions for life activity of the person;

evidence-based combination of ecological, economic and social interests of the person, society and state for the purpose of ensuring sustainable development and the favorable environment;

protection, reproduction and rational use of natural resources as necessary conditions of providing the favorable environment and ecological safety;

responsibility of public authorities of the Russian Federation, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies for providing the favorable environment and ecological safety in the corresponding territories;

paid nature of environmental management and indemnification to the environment;

independence of the state ecological supervision;

presumption of ecological danger of the planned economic and other activity;

obligation of environmental impact assessment in case of decision making about implementation of economic and other activity;

obligation of conducting in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation verification of the projects and other documentation proving economic and other activity which can make negative impact on the environment create threat of life, to health and property of citizens, on compliance to requirements of technical regulations in the field of environmental protection;

accounting of natural and social and economic features of the territories when planning and implementing economic and other activity;

priority of preserving natural ecological systems, natural landscapes and natural complexes;

admissibility of impact of economic and other activity on the environment proceeding from requirements in the field of environmental protection;

ensuring decrease in negative impact of economic and other activity on the environment according to standard rates in the field of environmental protection which can be reached on the basis of use of the best available technologies taking into account economic and social factors;

obligation of participation in activities for environmental protection of public authorities of the Russian Federation, public authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation, local government bodies, public associations and non-profit organizations, legal entities and physical persons;

preserving biological diversity;

providing combination of general and individual approaches to establishment of the measures of state regulation in the field of environmental protection applied to the legal entities and individual entrepreneurs performing economic and (or) other activity or planning implementation of such activities;

prohibition of economic and other activity which effects of impact are unpredictable for the environment, and also project implementations which can lead to degradation of natural ecological systems, change and (or) destruction of genetic fund of plants, animal and other organisms, depletion of natural resources and other negative changes of the environment;

observance of the right of everyone to receipt of reliable information about state of environment, and also participation of the citizens in decision making concerning them the rights to the favorable environment according to the legislation;

responsibility for violation of the legislation in the field of environmental protection;

organization and development of system of ecological education, education and forming of ecological culture;

participation of citizens, public associations and non-profit organizations in the solution of tasks of environmental protection;

international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental protection;

obligation of financing by the legal entities and individual entrepreneurs performing economic and (or) other activity which brings or can lead to environmental pollution, measures for prevention and (or) reduction of negative impact on the environment, elimination of effects of this impact.

Article 4. Objects of environmental protection

Objects of environmental protection from pollution, depletion, degradations, spoil, destruction and other negative impact of economic and (or) other activity are environment components, natural objects and natural complexes.

Article 4.1. Pollutants

1. Pollutants to which measures of state regulation in the field of environmental protection are applied are determined:

taking into account the level of toxicity, cancerogenic and (or) mutagen properties of the chemical and other substances including tending to accumulating in the environment, and also their capability to transformation in the environment to the connections having bigger toxicity;

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