of December 30, 2022 No. 1116
About approval of the Concept of development of transport and logistic capacity of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030
According to Item 66 of System of state planning in the Republic of Kazakhstan approved by the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 29, 2017 No. 790, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan DECIDES:
1. Approve the enclosed Concept of development of transport and logistic capacity of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030 (further – the Concept).
2. To the central state, local actuators and other organizations (under approval), responsible for implementation of the Concept:
1) to take measures for implementation of the Concept;
2) to provide information on the course of implementation of the Concept according to the procedure and the terms established by the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 29, 2017 No. 790 "About approval of System of state planning in the Republic of Kazakhstan".
3. Declare invalid the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 31, 2019 No. 1055 "About approval of the State program of infrastructure development "Nurla of sholas" for 2020 - 2025".
4. To impose control of execution of this resolution on the Ministry of the industry and infrastructure development of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
5. This resolution becomes effective from the date of its signing.
Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Approved by the Order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 30, 2022 No. 1116
The concept of development of transport and logistic capacity of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2030
Basis for development
The presidential decree of the Republic of Kazakhstan of September 14, 2020 No. 413 "About measures for implementation of the Message of the Head of state to the people of Kazakhstan of September 1, 2020 "Kazakhstan in new reality: time of actions";
The presidential decree of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 26, 2021 No. 521 "About modification of the Presidential decree of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 15, 2018 No. 636 "About approval of the Strategic plan of development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2025 and recognition voided some presidential decrees of the Republic of Kazakhstan";
The presidential decree of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 21, 2022 No. 823 "About approval of the Plan of territorial development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2025";
the legal order of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 5, 2022 No. 22-01-7.12 chipboard;
the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 29, 2017 No. 790 "About approval of System of state planning in the Republic of Kazakhstan";
The presidential decree of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 26, 2022 No. 2 "About measures for implementation of the election programme of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan "Fair Kazakhstan – for all and for everyone. Now and forever"
State body responsible for development of the Concept
Ministry of the industry and infrastructure development of the Republic of Kazakhstan
State bodies responsible for implementation of the program document
Central and local actuators, subjects of the quasi-public sector
2023 – 2030
For the purpose of development of transport industry of the country in different years state programs of development and integration of infrastructure of transport system, infrastructure development "Nurla of sholas", the national project "Strong Regions — the Driver of Development of the Country" are adopted and realized.
Within these program documents conditions for increase in competitiveness and development of national carriers of loads and passengers were created.
Development of domestic railway engineering industry was provided due to opening of number of new large industry industrial enterprises.
Large infrastructure projects, including construction and reconstruction about 13 thousand km of highways of republican value and 2,5 of one thousand km of new rail lines are realized. Measures for upgrade of infrastructure and railway vehicles on rail, air and water transport are realized.
In the field of sea transport new dry-cargo terminals in Aktau port are constructed by capacity of 3 million tons that allowed to increase transshipment amount to 20,7 of one million tons.
For the purpose of development of multimodal transportations the multipurpose ferry complex in the port of Kuryk is constructed by capacity of 6 million tons. As a result handling capacity of seaports of Kazakhstan is increased to 27 million tons.
The construction of Dry port and adjacent infrastructure based on SEZ "Horgos-Vostochnye Gate" is complete.
Development and implementation of new technologies of the organization of container transports in the main international corridors allowed to bring the average speed of movement of container trains to 1108 km a day.
At the airports of Kazakhstan works on upgrade of objects of land infrastructure are carried out, opportunities for acceptance of modern air vehicles are expanded. The construction of the new passenger airport terminal of the city of Astana is complete and reconstruction of one of airport runways of Almaty is carried out.
In general for the last 15 years in development of transport and logistic complex and transit capacity of Kazakhstan it is invested over 10 trillion tenge that allowed to accelerate integration of the Kazakhstan infrastructure into global transport and logistic flows and to create the new competitive transit corridors providing the low cost and high speed of cargo delivery. Within the realized programs in industry about 600 thousand workplaces are created.
In 2015-2021 the annual average growth of transit traffic by all modes of transport constituted % 14,8, including with annual surplus at the % 13,4 level for the last 3 years.
Following the results of 2021 all modes of transport in the country it is transported by 3 731 million tons of loads where the greatest amount is necessary on automobile (89%) and railway (11%) transport. The cumulative cargo turnover constituted 608 mlssot-km in which the share of rail and road transport constituted more than 75%. The number of the passengers transported in 2021 made 7,6 of one billion people from whom 99,7 of % was transported by road transport.
Income of the transport sector (except for pipeline transport) in 2021 constituted about 3, 2 trillion tenge that is 23% higher than indicator of 2020 (2, 6 trillion tenges).
In the first half of the year 2022 the share of the transport sector in GDP constituted % 6,2 that there are lower than the level of 2018-2019 (7-8% of GDP). Pandemic effects became the main reason of decrease.
For January-October, 2022 investments into the sphere of transport and warehousing constituted 1, 1 trillion tenge that is 11,6% higher than indicators for the same period of 2021 (978 billion tenges).
In the first half of the year 2022 the number of the workers occupied on transport and warehousing constituted 616 thousand people (7,1 of % of all number of occupied population).
Extent of highway network public for the beginning of 2022 constituted 96 thousand km from which 24,9 of one thousand km – republican network and 71 thousand km – highways of regional and district value, including 8,6 of one thousand km (34%) – highways I and II of technical categories.
Procedure for 22,5 of one thousand km or 90% of the general extent of highways of republican value conforms to the approved normative requirements. At the same time 52% (12, 8 thousand km) highways of republican value are in good shape, 38% (9,6 of one thousand km) – in satisfactory and 10% (2,6 of one thousand km) – in unsatisfactory condition.
During the period from 2015 to 2019 the stable surplus of indicators of activities of motor transport was observed. The amount of carriages of goods grew with 1,7 to 3,6 of one billion tons, the cargo turnover was tripled almost and reached indicator in 173,5 of one billion t-km. The number of the transported passengers also increased more than twice – with 11,1 to one billion 23,8. The passenger turnover indicator for the specified period also grew more than in time 2,5 to 260,6 of one billion p-km.
Because of negative impact of quarantine restrictions in 2020 on amounts of export-import and transit traffic by motor transport essential decrease by 26% in comparison with 2019 with return to positive dynamics in 2021 was observed.
More than 80% of amounts of the transported loads and more than 25% of cargo turnover fall to the share of motor transport (except for pipeline).
The share of passenger traffic by motor transport constitutes more 99, % and about 74% of general passenger turnover all modes of transport. The number of the passengers transported by the companies with the state pattern of ownership makes less 0,001 of % of the total amount of transportations that testifies to rather high degree of liberalizovannost of the market of motor transportation services.
From 2015 to 2021 the annual average surplus of transit traffic by road transport constituted % 17,5. In the last three years of the loudspeaker increased, having provided annual surplus in % 20,2. The main transit cargoes are provided by phytogenesis products (21%), machines and mechanisms (16%), textile products (16%), consumer goods (11%), products from ferrous and non-ferrous metals (9%). On each of these categories during 2015-2021 the surplus of amounts at the level from 13% to 33% was observed.
Quarantine restrictions of 2020-2021 led to slowdown in economic activity and essential decline in demand for services of motor transport – following the results of 2020 IFO of carriage of goods by motor transport was reduced by 32% in comparison with 2019. The income of motor transport from carriages of goods decreased by 19%. The quantity of the transported loads after peak fall in 2020 was stabilized a little and following the results of 2021 made 3,3 of one billion tons. The cargo turnover was also reduced by % 13,3 from 182,7 to one billion 158,3 tkm following the results of 2021.
Following the results of 2021 I will eat around the loads transported motor transport in the international message constituted 6,5 of one million tons, including including 7,8 of % of 0,5 of one million tons export and 5,9 of one million tons of inward cargoes. From this amount only 1,8 of one million tons is transported by domestic haulers, showing essential decrease in share of participation of the Kazakhstan operators in the market of the international goods transportation from 52% to 31% over the last 5 years owing to obsolescence of the operated park of automatic telephone exchange and toughening of ecological requirements.
Quarantine restrictions exerted the greatest negative impact on public conveyances by motor transport – the amount of public conveyances for 2020-2021 decreased by 3 times with 23,8 to 7, of one billion passengers. Also the passenger turnover with 260,6 was similarly reduced to 79,7 of one billion p-km that more than for 60% and the income from public conveyances for 35% affected decrease in index of physical amount.
Regular international carriages of passengers on 117 routes are performed by 61 carriers with the general park of 610 buses, at the same time the share of buses is more senior than 7 years constitutes 87%.
The greatest number of buses was registered in the republic in 2013 (101 thousand units), then gradual reducing the park of buses to 80,1 of one thousand units for the beginning of 2022 was observed. Disposal of railway vehicles in view of depreciation, decrease in consumer capability of the population, and also introduction of utilization collection and collection for primary registration of vehicles became basic reasons of this tendency.
Rail transport plays important role in economy of Kazakhstan, providing half of all cargo turnover and transportation of the most part of export and transit cargoes.
The main transported loads are coal, iron ore, grain and oil products (58% of total amount) along with the massive loads, the raw raw materials and semifinished products generated by large enterprises of mining and metallurgical, petrochemical and agrarian sectors.
For the last 6 years the annual average surplus of transit traffic by railway transport constituted % 14,2. In the period of pandemic critical recession was not noted that provided annual average dynamics of surplus at the % 11,9 level for the last 3 years.
The key export directions of the Kazakhstan products – Russia, (including transit through the Russian seaports Baltic and the Black Sea), the countries of Europe, the People's Republic of China and Central Asia. Thanks to availability of port infrastructure and sea linear services TMTM actively develops.
Over the last 5 years the greatest growth rates in 31% are observed in the transit message (growth in 2021 on 4, by one million tons by 2017). The main surplus is caused by increase in transit in The People's Republic of China — the EU — the People's Republic of China direction, and also "the People's Republic of China – TsA – the People's Republic of China", "Russia – TsA – Russia" and TMTM.
For the end of 2021 in the republic the locomotive fleet constituted 1824 units, including 1 234 diesel locomotives and 590 electric locomotives, 2 377 passenger rail cars, 134 817 goods wagons, including 46 226 cars belonging to JSC Kazakstan tem_r zholy (KTZH) Oil Company group of companies and 88 591 goods wagons belonging to private operators and owners.
In car economy in 2022 the greatest share in the park was occupied by gondola cars (43%) and tanks (26%). The number of flat cars made one thousand 11,3, including 7,8 of one thousand fitting platforms for transportation of containers.
Passenger traffic in Kazakhstan perform 14 companies, including 1 national (KTZh subsidiary company) and 13 private of which 23% of amount of all passenger traffic are the share. The national carrier of passengers will organize public conveyance rail transport to more than 100 routes. It is expected that in the next 8 years the passenger traffic on railway transport will grow at small rates generally at the expense of natural increase of the population.
For maintenance of price level, acceptable for the population, practice of subsidizing from the state and KTZh due to goods transportation is effective, including transit.
In 2021 within the Coordinate validation mission of ICAO (ICVM) the level of safety-of-life function in Kazakhstan constituted 84% that is 15% higher than the average world indicator. The Kazakhstan airlines have no restrictions when implementing flights to the countries of Europe. These results were achieved within realization of the 68th step "The plan of the nation – 100 specific steps" regarding transition to the British management model by industry of civil aviation.
As of the end of 2022 in Kazakhstan perform activities of 55 operators of air vehicles. Regular commercial transportations carry out 5 airlines (Eyre Astana, Fly Arystan, SCAT, Qazaq Air, the Southern sky, Zhetysa).
Domestic air transportation are performed along 57 routes with frequency of 617 flights a week. The route network of the international aviamessages of the country constitutes 111 routes with frequency of 499 runs a week to 28 countries.
From 20 operating airports 18 are categorized according to standards of International Civil Aviation Organization (IKAO): the airports of the cities of Astana and Almaty – on categories IIIA and IIIB, Atyrau city airport – on categories II, the airports of other cities – on category I. At 12 airports the "open sky" mode with provision of the fifth freedom of the air in the directions on which the Kazakhstan carriers do not operate is effective.
In 2019 airlines transported 8,06 of one million passengers, is serviced at the airports – 17,7 of one million passengers, transported loads – 24, by one thousand tons. In view of quarantine restrictions in 2020 the passenger traffic decreased to 5,48 of one million passengers, including one million 0,88 on international (decrease by 73%) and one million 4,6 on domestic flights. At the airports 10,7 of one million passengers was serviced and 24,2 of one thousand tons of loads is transported.
In 2021 growth of passenger traffic with exceeding of dokarantinny indicators is noted. The total quantity of the transported passengers constituted 9,33 of one million people, including one million 1,80 on international (growth twice by 2020) and 7,53 of one million people on domestic flights. The airports service 17,4 of one million people, 34,0 of one thousand tons of loads is transported.
One of the most important conditions of development of air transit through Kazakhstan are security with aviation fuel and its competitive price. This factor also determines possibility of development of technical landings. At the same time in Kazakhstan 3 oil refineries which provide release of 700 thousand tons of aviation fuel a year (2022) in case of annual requirement at the level of at least 1 million tons function.
The annual amount of goods transportation between Asia and Europe makes about 7-8 million tons. At the same time the quantity of the processed load at the domestic airports following the results of 2021 made 130 thousand tons or about 1,6 of % of reservoir of the Asian direction (2020 – 87,1 of one thousand tons, 2019 – 140,4 of one thousand tons). In the presence of own freight air carrier Kazakhstan can play key role in servicing of the cargo flows transported by the aircraft transport both between adjacent, and between the global markets.
The Almaty city airport is one of the most optimal variants of the choice for development of the international cargo hub in view of its geographical benefit from the point of view of technical landings and commercial flights along route Europe-Southeast Asia, equipment by modern high-precision navigation and visual means, uninterrupted providing fuel and lubricants, favorable climatic conditions and development of cargo infrastructure. The personnel of the airport have high level of preparation and wide experience on work with foreign carriers.
The airports of of Astana, Karaganda, Aktau and Aktobe also have the potential for development as cargo hubs. At the same time for such airports as Almaty and Shymkent, despite their considerable potential, there are restrictions regarding availability of the free parcels of land for further development which arose including owing to intensive building of aerodrome environs.
In 2021 average load of production capacities of seaports of Kazakhstan made 31% which at the same time are the least loaded terminals are dry-cargo (25%) and ferry (20%).
Handling capacity of dry-cargo terminals of Aktau port makes about 4 million tons per year, capacity on oil transfer - 7,5 of one million tons per year. Port capacity Kuryk on transfer of ferry loads makes about 6 million tons. The range of services of the port of Bautino is limited by transshipment, the oil and gas projects connected with development in KSKM and servicing of the service fleet performing domestic transports.
The international market of transportations on the Caspian Sea is segmented: on transportation of oil and dry cargoes, also the loads transported by ferry boats. Specific infrastructure of both seaport (specialized terminals), and the trade fleet is involved in each segment.
The main cargo turnover is performed in the export direction and constitutes about 80% of the total amount of transfer. In the export-import message transportation of cars and automatic telephone exchange by ferry boats and other loads (containers, TNP, cement, metal, etc.) by dry cargo ships in the direction of Azerbaijan and Iran is performed.
The share of container transports increased from 31 thousand DFE in 2019 to 41 thousand DFE in 2021 in connection with moving to this segment of loads which were transported by pile/filling earlier (grain, oil products, mineral fertilizers, etc.).
Oil transportation constitutes the separate ocean shipping market as requires the special equipment for filling oil in ports. Oil is transported only by tankers with observance of strict conventional requirements to their technical parameters.
For the medium term in case of shipment about 3 million tons of oil in the direction of Azerbaijan the existing infrastructure of Aktau port (handling capacity of 5 million tons) will allow to transship the specified amounts. At the same time, considering that since 2012 oil transportation is performed by pipeline transport, building-up of transportation loads will require reconfiguration of transport and logistic processes on all rout to follow of the Kazakhstan oil with need of construction of at least four tankers with a loading capacity of 12 thousand tons.
In the long term in case of the direction through Azerbaijan of additional amounts and removal of sanctions from the Iranian direction for oil transportation on SWAP to transactions are possible construction of additional infrastructure in the port of Kuryk and further replenishment of tanker fleet. Balance of quantitative and high-quality structure of the trade fleet is determined by perspective cargo base, and also conventional and ecological requirements to designs of courts. Implementation of interstate arrangements will allow to expand infrastructure of new routes.
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