of February 22, 2022 No. 91
About the National strategy of water resources management in the conditions of climate change for the period till 2030
Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus DECIDES:
1. Approve the National strategy of water resources management in the conditions of climate change for the period till 2030 (further if other is not determined, - National strategy) (is applied).
2. Assign to heads of the republican state bodies and other state organizations subordinated to the Government of the Republic of Belarus, chairmen of regional executive committees and the Minsk Gorispolkom and also to the heads of other organizations who are executives in charge according to appendix 2 to National strategy, responsibility for their realization.
3. To impose control of implementation of actions of National strategy on the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection.
Prime Minister of the Republic of Belarus
Approved by the Resolution of Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus of February 22, 2022 No. 91
Water resources are national property worldwide, security with them - key indicator of sustainable development of society in social, economic and ecological aspects. According to the resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations of September 25, 2015 No. 70/1 "Transformation of our world: the agenda in the field of sustainable development for the period till 2030" one of Sustainable development goals is ensuring availability and rational use of water resources and sanitation for all.
Extreme importance of water COVID-19, pandemic as also confirmed access to safe drinking water, the proper sanitation and hygiene are one of components of the first line of protection for lack of vaccine, especially in many developing countries.
Now about 2,5 of one billion people (more than 30 percent of the population of Earth) live in regions with deficit of water. Only desertification will threaten existence about one billion people approximately in 100 countries. Increase in population and increase in demand for food and energy will aggravate problems of shortage of water.
The climate change which is actively shown in the last 50 years conducts to substantial effects. It is expected that in the nearest future the world community will have negative influence of climate change in the form of the increased frequency and intensity of floods and droughts, strengthenings of deficit of water resources, and also deteriorations in ecological condition of water ecosystems. First of all ecosystems of the small rivers will fall into the most vulnerable state.
Need of taking measures, the water resources directed to adaptation to climate change, directly affects the Republic of Belarus as in its southern part for many years decrease in river drain practically during all seasons is observed. Under influence of this process some industries of economy connected with use of water resources also began to get.
National strategy is directed to increase in efficiency of use of water resources for ensuring sustained economic growth of the country in the conditions of the changing climate and creation of conditions for preserving water ecosystems.
National strategy is developed according to the Program of social and economic development of the Republic of Belarus for 2021-2025 approved by the Presidential decree of the Republic of Belarus of July 29, 2021 No. 292, is based on the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, the laws of the Republic of Belarus, rules of international law, Sustainable development goals, and also on documents of long-term strategic planning, including the National strategy of sustainable social and economic development of the Republic of Belarus for the period till 2030 approved by Presidium of Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus (the minutes of May 2, 2017 No. 10), and is the main reference point during the forming and accomplishment of the state and other programs, regional complexes of actions in the field of protection and rational use of waters.
Concerning National strategy in 2020 there took place public discussions according to Regulations on procedure for the organization and carrying out public discussions of drafts of ecologically significant decisions, ecological reports on strategic ecological assessment, valuation reports of impact on the environment, accounting of the made ecologically significant decisions, the approved resolution of Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus of June 14, 2016 No. 458.
The territory of the Republic of Belarus serves as watershed of basins of the Baltic and Black seas. About 55 percent of river drain are the share of the rivers of the basin of the Black Sea and 45 percent - Baltic.
The indicator of security with water resources in the country (on mean annual general annual river drain) constitutes 6,2 of thousand CBM of water a year per capita and is at the level of the Central European value. It is much higher, than in some adjacent countries (The Republic of Poland and Ukraine).
According to share data, in the territory of Belarus there are more than 20 thousand water currents general extent over 90,6 of one thousand km and more than 10 thousand lakes in which concentrated about 9 cubic km of water. The Vitebsk and Grodno regions, least - Gomel and Brest are most provided with water resources.
From water currents the small rivers and streams (about 90 percent) prevail. Their dispersion on the territory makes water resources available for universal use. However the river drain is generally created by the big and average rivers along which large settlements and the main objects of the industry are concentrated.
The quantity of reservoirs more (about 90 percent) is caused by their natural origin (lake). In the territory of the country 85 water storage basins with surface area of water from 100 hectares are created. Water storage basins of bulk type are concentrated generally in the southern part of the republic, and lake type - in northern. There are more than 1500 ponds which are used mainly for fish farming, and also in the recreational purposes.
In addition to reservoirs and water currents in the territory of the country one more type of natural water objects - springs is also everywhere widespread. They are very important in social and spiritual life of the population and are unique natural water objects as from the point of view of their forming and role in preserving landscape and biological diversity, and in respect of opportunities of use as sources of not centralized drinking water supply.
The ecological condition of superficial water objects is estimated by results of the monitoring of surface water which is carried out as a part of the National monitoring system of the environment in the Republic of Belarus on 160 superficial water objects in 297 Items of observations, organized near average and large settlements. For the last five years the tendency to improvement of ecological condition of superficial water objects is observed - percent 72,4 from them is appropriated good and the ecological status is higher. Considerable anthropogenous strain is experienced 1,2 of percent of superficial water objects (their sites).
Now in the territory of the Republic of Belarus balance sheet inventories of fresh underground waters in quantity of 6,35 of one million cubic m/days on categories A+B+C1 (or 2317,75 of one million cubic m/year) on 609 fields (their parts) of fresh underground waters are reconnoitered and approved. On 605 fields (their parts) inventories of fresh underground waters are reconnoitered and approved for economic and drinking needs, four fields (their parts) - for the technical purposes. The reconnoitered and approved inventories of underground mineral waters constitute one thousand cubic m/days about 62,13.
High-quality composition of underground waters, including mineral, and their inventories allow to perform in addition to satisfaction of economic and drinking needs use of such waters in medical (resort, improving) the purposes using more than 30 types of mineral waters, and also export by bottling. On territorial accessory fresh underground waters are most intensively used in the Gomel, Mogilev and Minsk regions, and mineral - in the Vitebsk and Minsk regions.
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