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LAW OF TURKMENISTAN

of June 5, 2021

About education

(new edition)

The law of Turkmenistan "About education", adopted on May 4, 2013 (Sheets of Majlis of Turkmenistan, 2013, No. 2, Art. 21; 2014, No. 4, Art. 159; 2017, No. 1, Art. 36; 2018, No. 2, Art. 55; 2020, No. 3, the Art. 50) to be reworded as follows:

This Law regulates the legal basis of the relations and determines the principles of state policy in the fields of education, and also the purpose, tasks, functions of education system and organizational bases of management of its activities.

Chapter I. General provisions

Article 1. Concept of education

The right to education is one of the basic and inherent constitutional rights of the person.

Education enhancement as bases of spiritual, social, economic and cultural progress of society constitutes the priority direction of development of Turkmenistan.

Education is subject of the purposeful and systematic activities of Turkmenistan based on requirements satisfaction of the personality, society, state in education and training of the younger generation.

Education is understood as the activities aimed at the development and enhancement of the personality on the basis of national and universal spiritual and moral, cultural and social values and rules and standards of behavior accepted in the Turkmen society for the benefit of the person, society and the state.

Training is understood as process of purposeful mastering knowledge, abilities, skills and competence, developments of capabilities, acquisitions of experience of use of knowledge in everyday life and forming at the identity of deep motivation to education and enhancement of professional qualification throughout all life.

Article 2. The legislation of Turkmenistan in the fields of education and its tasks

1. The legislation of Turkmenistan in the field of education is based on the Constitution of Turkmenistan, consists of this Law and other regulatory legal acts of Turkmenistan regulating questions of education.

2. Tasks of the legislation of Turkmenistan in the field of education are:

1) providing and protection of constitutional right of each person in Turkmenistan on education;

2) providing all-embracing and fair quality education and encouragement of possibility of training of citizens of Turkmenistan throughout all life;

3) creation of legal guarantees for continued operation and educational development in Turkmenistan;

4) enhancement of the legislation of Turkmenistan in the field of education according to the universally international standards relating to education taking into account interests and national peculiarities of Turkmenistan;

5) determination of powers of public authorities in the field of education;

6) determination of powers and responsibility of legal entities and physical persons in the fields of education, and also legal regulation of their relations in the field.

Article 3. The principles of state policy in the field of education

State policy in the field of education is based on the principles:

1) equal rights of each person in complete realization of its capabilities and talent;

2) humanistic nature of education, priority of universal values, life and health of the person, free development of the personality;

3) organic communication of education with history, national culture and traditions of the people of Turkmenistan;

4) education of civic consciousness and patriotism, diligence, respect for human rights and freedoms, love to the surrounding nature, family, Homeland;

5) general availability for each person of all types of the educational services provided by the state;

6) obligation of general secondary education and training of children of preschool age for school, free of charge them in state educational institutions for each citizen of Turkmenistan;

7) continuity of education and succession of its levels;

8) security of quality education throughout all human life, at all education levels and its compliance to modern requirements;

9) varieties of forms of education and forms of education, and also educational institutions on types, types and patterns of ownership;

10) integration of education system with science and production and its interactions with education systems of foreign states;

11) secular nature of the state education system and its department from the religious organizations;

12) strengthenings of social role of education;

13) managements of education system according to the universally international standards and practice;

14) democratic nature of management of the education system based on providing the rights of pedagogical workers, students, parents or the faces of minor students replacing them to participation in management of educational institutions;

15) inadmissibility of restriction or elimination of the competition in the field of education;

16) security of education system with highly-skilled pedagogical employees.

Article 4. The state guarantees of the rights of citizens of Turkmenistan in the field of education

1. The possibility of education irrespective of nationality, skin colors, floor, origin, property and official capacity, the residence, language, the relation to religion, political convictions or other circumstances, and also age and the state of health is guaranteed to citizens of Turkmenistan.

On the bases of sex, age and the state of health by the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan restrictions for education by separate professions of workers, specialties and the directions of preparation, and also forms of education can be set.

2. The state provides to citizens of Turkmenistan right to education by creation of education system and the corresponding social and economic conditions for education.

3. The state guarantees to citizens of Turkmenistan receipt of compulsory and free general secondary education, and also provides according to their capabilities available professional education in state educational institutions.

4. For the purpose of realization of right to education of the citizens of Turkmenistan needing social support, the state incurs expenses on their content during receipt of education by them. Categories of citizens to which the state social support is provided procedure and the amount of its provision are established by the legislation of Turkmenistan.

5. The state creates to the citizens of Turkmenistan with limited opportunities of health that is having shortcomings of physical and (or) mental development, conditions for receipt of education by them in educational institutions of general type (inclusive education). For citizens of Turkmenistan who for health reasons cannot visit educational institutions of general type special educational institutions for receipt of education by them on the basis of special pedagogical approaches, correction of violations of development and social adaptation are created.

6. The state renders assistance in education by the citizens of Turkmenistan who showed the high level of intellectual development and creative capabilities in certain sphere of educational and research activities, scientific and technical and art creativity, physical culture and sport including by means of provision of special state grants by it, including grants for training in foreign states.

Criteria and procedure for provision of special state grants are established by the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan.

Article 5. Languages of training and education

1. Languages of training and education in educational institutions are determined by this Law and other regulatory legal acts of Turkmenistan.

2. Turkmen as state is the main language of training and education in educational institutions of Turkmenistan of all types irrespective of their patterns of ownership.

All educational institutions shall provide training in state language of Turkmenistan.

Professional educational institutions perform training at state language of Turkmenistan. Proceeding from purpose of educational programs and specifics of educational process, as the main language of training in such organizations of education the foreign language (languages) can be used.

3. The state renders assistance to citizens of Turkmenistan in studying of the native language according to the legislation of Turkmenistan.

4. The state, considering the growing global social, ecological and economic interdependence, promotes mastering citizens of Turkmenistan foreign languages, including official working languages of the UN, in educational institutions of all types irrespective of their patterns of ownership.

The learning of foreign languages joins in general education and professional educational programs as obligatory objects.

5. In organizations of formation of foreign states or joint with them, functioning in the territory of Turkmenistan, according to this Law, other regulatory legal acts and international treaties of Turkmenistan, the main language of training the corresponding foreign language (languages) is.

6. For the students enlisted in institution of higher professional education of Turkmenistan for the purpose of enhancement of knowledge of state language or the corresponding foreign language at the sufficient level necessary for carrying out educational process, the rate of language training within one academic year can be organized. Final positive assessment of this rate allows students to continue training in the chosen educational programs.

7. The state language of Turkmenistan in educational institutions in which the main language of training is the corresponding foreign language (languages) is applied to teaching the subject matters entering national component of the educational program which is determined by authorized body of the executive authority in the field of education.

8. The state according to international treaties of Turkmenistan renders assistance to persons of the Turkmen nationality living outside its territory in receipt of general secondary education by them in the native language.

Chapter II. Education system

Article 6. Structure of education system

1. The education system in Turkmenistan includes:

1) state educational standards;

2) educational programs;

3) network of educational institutions;

4) the bodies exercising control in the field of education, and other bodies created by them.

2. The structural components of education system specified in part one of this Article in the formation, functioning and development shall:

1) to correspond to quickly changing requirements of the labor market;

2) to consider world technological progress, processes of urbanization and migration, environmental, demographic and other problems of global development;

3) to provide program implementation of social and economic development of Turkmenistan.

3. The state provides effective functioning of education system by means of:

1) creation and enhancement of the corresponding effective controling mechanisms;

2) training quality assurances;

3) digitalizations of education system;

4) transparent and efficient financial procedures and mechanisms;

Died 5) in the field of institutional management.

Article 7. State educational standards

1. In Turkmenistan at all education levels the state educational standards providing are entered:

1) general requirements to contents of educational programs;

2) maximum amount of academic load of students;

3) requirements to level of training of students.

The state educational standards are obligatory for all types and types of educational institutions irrespective of their patterns of ownership, and also other forms of education.

2. The state educational standards of professional education are developed on appropriate levels of professional education in the directions of preparation, specialties and professions of workers.

3. Results of training in the directions of preparation:

1) provide statement and the solution of expanded class of professional tasks in the enlarged professional (subject) area on the basis of set of knowledge, representations, skills acquired as a result of development of the appropriate educational programs;

2) provide, proceeding from the education level and the appropriated qualification, the basic preparation sufficient for practical activities, both profound and specialized preparation with orientation to research and pedagogical work.

4. Results of training in specialties:

1) provide statement and the solution of certain class of professional tasks in specific professional (subject) area on the basis of set of knowledge, representations, skills acquired as a result of development of the appropriate educational programs;

2) provide the basic preparation sufficient for practical activities, proceeding from the profession and the appropriated qualification.

5. Results of training in professions of workers provide accomplishment of certain type of labor functions in narrow professional (subject) area on the basis of set of knowledge, representations, skills acquired as a result of development of the appropriate educational programs, and also the appropriated qualification.

6. Qualification is understood as the characteristic of level of training of the graduate reflected in the education document to accomplishment of certain type of professional activity or specific labor functions, and also education continuation.

7. The state educational standards are basis of objective training evaluation and qualification of graduates irrespective of education forms.

8. The state educational standards are based on the advanced innovative achievements of the world theory and practice in the field of education and provide:

1) unity of educational space of Turkmenistan and succession of general education and professional educational programs;

2) compliance of educational system of Turkmenistan to the principles of the International standard classification of formation of UNESCO;

3) achievement of the high quality level of education;

4) equivalence of education in the conditions of variety of educational programs and types (types) of educational institutions, recognition of education documents for free participation of Turkmenistan in the international market of work;

5) objective assessment of activities of educational institutions;

6) associativity of the requirements of economy expressed in qualification standards of workers and contents of professional education;

7) alternativeness of contents of educational programs of appropriate level of education, possibility of forming of educational programs of different level of complexity and orientation taking into account educational needs and capabilities of students.

9. The state educational standards include requirements to:

1) to structure of educational programs (including to ratio of obligatory part of the main educational program and part created by directly educational institutions) and to their amount;

2) to sales terms of educational programs, including personnel, financial, material and other conditions;

3) to results of development of educational programs.

10. For the studying persons with limited opportunities of health special state educational standards are established.

11. Development and approval of the state educational standards are performed according to the procedure, established by the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan.

Article 8. Educational programs

1. The educational program is set of content of training, its amount and time of implementation, the planned results of training which is presented in the form of the curriculum, calendar educational schedule, training programs in objects (to cycles, modules, rates), other components, and also estimative and methodical materials.

2. In Turkmenistan educational programs are subdivided on:

1) general education;

2) professional.

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