of December 27, 2019 No. 990
About approval of the State program of development of regions for 2020 - 2025
The government of the Republic of Kazakhstan DECIDES:
1. Approve the enclosed State program of development of regions for 2020 - 2025 (further - the Program).
2. To the central, local executive bodies, state bodies, directly subordinate and accountable to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (in coordination), and to other organizations (in coordination) to take measures for program implementation.
3. To responsible central, local executive bodies, state bodies, directly subordinate and accountable to the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (in coordination), and to other organizations (in coordination) to provide information on execution of the Actions plan on program implementation according to the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 29, 2017 to No. 790 "About approval of System of state planning in the Republic of Kazakhstan".
4. To impose control of execution of this resolution on the Ministry of national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Approved by the Order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 27, 2019 No. 990
Name of the Program
The state program of development of regions for 2020 - 2025
Basis for development
The strategic plan of development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2025 approved by the Presidential decree of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 15, 2018 No. 636;
Developer of the Program
Ministry of national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan
State bodies responsible
The ministry of national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of the industry and infrastructure development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of digital development, innovations and the aerospace industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of ecology, geology and natural resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of information and social development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Department of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, akimats of areas, Nour-Sultan's cities, Almaty and Shymkent, JSC NWF Samruk-Kazyna (in coordination), JSC Kazgeologiya Oil and Gas Company (in coordination)
Increase in economic competitiveness of regions and improvement of quality of life of the population through the managed urbanization
1. Development of functional urban areas - agglomerations with the centers in Nour-Sultan's cities, Almaty, Shymkent and Aktobe
2020 - 2025
* Forecast values of urban saturation for 2020-2025 are calculated on the basis of rates of growth/decrease in urban saturation for 2000-2018.
Sources and amounts of financing
Financing of the State program will be performed for the account and within means republican and local budgets, and also other sources which are not forbidden by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
one million tenges
* The amount of means will be specified in process of approval and refining republican and local budgets for the corresponding financial years according to the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The state program of development of regions for 2020 - 2025 (further - the State program) is developed in implementation of the Strategic plan of development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2025, the Forecast scheme of territorial and spatial development of the country till 2030 (further - the Forecast scheme), Messages of the Head of state to the people of Kazakhstan of October 5, 2018 "Growth of welfare of Kazakhstan citizens: increase in the income and quality of life", Elbasa's orders read at the XVIII another congress of Nur Otan concerning realization of regional policy.
The forecast scheme is the instrument of realization of regional policy and determines long-term vision of development of the country regarding resettlement of the population, placement of infrastructure, other aspects of effective use of the territories.
In the Forecast scheme Kazakhstan is considered as the open system subject to modern global trends (globalization, digitalization of economy, external migration). In the Forecast scheme theoretical bases of prospects of development of large and big cities as drivers of growth of non-oil gross domestic product (further - GDP) the countries are determined.
Taking into account the tasks solved within the State program the following terms are used:
1) agglomeration - the urbanized accumulation of close located settlements around one (monocentric) or several (polycentric) the cities kernels united among themselves by continuous production, cultural and community and other communications, and also tending to territorial merge.
The main criteria of determination of agglomerations in Kazakhstan are:
administrative status of the city center (capital, city of republican value, city of regional value);
demographic reservoir that includes dense population of the region, migratory inflow, resource base (land, water, food resources);
logistic potential that means convenient geographical arrangement, passing of the international transport corridors, availability of the transport hub and infrastructure;
economic potential, that is development of the city center (industrial and innovative, service, labor, financial, scientific potential);
2) the functional urban area (further - FGR) is analog of agglomerative educations at the regional level. Under this FGR unites:
a) the city kernel with the population at least 100 thousand people and with a density at least 1000 people on 1 sq.km (at the same time not being part of other FGR or the monotown);
b) the surrounding settlements located in radius no more than 30 km from the city kernel which at least 15% of the labor population participate in daily pendular migration to the city kernel;
3) the monotown - the city where the main part (20% and more) industrial production and able-bodied population is concentrated at one or several (few) city-forming companies, as a rule, of one profile and raw orientation (monospecialization) which at the same time determine all economic and social processes happening in the city.
The category of monotowns includes the cities with population from 10 to 200 thousand people who are characterized by one of the following criteria:
the industrial output of the city-forming companies of the city which is generally extracting sectors constitutes more than 20% of city production volume (monospecialization);
more than 20% of the total number of occupied population are employed at the city-forming companies of the city;
the cities in which now the city-forming companies work partially or suspended activities (at the same time often the suburban settlements and rural settlements which are economically closely connected with the city are administratively subordinated to monotowns);
4) the small city - the city with population to 50 thousand people;
5) the strong rural settlement - the well-planned rural settlement (further - SNP) in which infrastructure for providing with the state and social services to the population living in it and inhabitants of the adjacent SNP constituting rural cluster is created.
The rural cluster - set of the basic village and surrounding it sat down at distance about 10-15 km of remoteness. At the same time the distance on forming of rural clusters makes 10 km for densely populated (The Turkestan, Almaty, Jambyl, Mangystau, Kyzylorda regions) and 15 km for srednenaselenny regions of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Atyrau, East Kazakhstan, Akmola, Kostanay, West Kazakhstan, Aktyubinsk, North Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Pavlodar regions);
6) the border territories - the territories of the administrative-territorial educations and settlements located at distance to 50 km from Frontier of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
7) the centers of economic growth - the specific settlements which are carrying out in national economy or the region function of source of innovations and progress, being thanks to "scale effect" poles of attraction (concentration) of production factors and where the companies of dynamically developing industries making new goods and services are placed.
In this State program are included in number of the centers of economic growth:
in country scales - FGR with the centers in the cities of "the first level" (agglomerations with the centers in Nour-Sultan's cities, Almaty, Shymkent and Aktobe);
in scales of regions - FGR with the centers in the cities of "the second level" (the regional centers, the city of Semey);
8) authorized body - the central state body of the Republic of Kazakhstan performing management, and also cross-industry coordination in the sphere of regional development;
9) Council for regional policy - advisory advisory body under the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
10) the Interdepartmental commission on questions of regional policy - advisory advisory body under authorized body (further - MVK);
11) the "anchor" investment project - the average investment project realized in non-oil sectors of economy of Kazakhstan and directed to diversification of economy mono - or the small city on which creation at least 50 permanent workplaces is planned.
The development program of regions is implemented since 2014 (the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 16, 2018 gives the status of the State program) and covers questions of development of agglomerations, mono - and the small cities, and also sat down with high potential of development.
In 2019 the first five-years period of this Program comes to an end and following the results of its realization the following results were received.
The population of 4 large agglomerations (with the centers in Nour-Sultan's cities, Almaty, Aktobe and Shymkent with nearby settlements) increased by 1 million people.
Depreciation of networks of water supply in monotowns is reduced by 10% and power supply networks for 12%.
In 5 years of 17 thousand soft budget credits on purchase of housing according to the program "With the Diploma to the Village!" are issued to specialists of the social sphere and agro-industrial complex.
Within support of system of local self-government 8 thousand projects on improvement of villages were realized. Infrastructure in villages for 700 thousand villagers is improved.
In total 252 billion tenges were allocated for the specified actions.
Also events for development of water supply and construction of housing were held.
Since 2017 actions for construction of housing were integrated into the State program of housing construction "Nurla zher" for 2015-2019. Since 2020 questions of water supply, water disposal and housing and communal services will be implemented within the State program of housing-and-municipal development "Nurla zher" for 2020 - 2025.
In 5 years of implementation of the State program of development of regions 4 trillion tenges were allocated for development of engineering infrastructure 1,.
Researches of the World Bank (further - the WB), Development programs of the UN (further - PROON), Organizations for Economic Cooperation and Development (further - OECD) demonstrate that now long-term drivers of economic growth of the states are not separate industries or regions (area) as such, and concentration of labor power (talented youth and specialists) in the large cities with attractive living conditions. PROON in the National report on human development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2018 "The urbanization as the accelerator of inclusive and sustainable development in Kazakhstan" states that, in fact, very few countries managed to reach income level per capita in the amount of 10 thousand dollars of the USA in case of share of urban population less than 60%. In this regard in the same place it is noted that though the urbanization in itself does not guarantee economic growth, sustainable economic development does not happen for lack of urbanization.
The analysis of regional development of economically developed countries demonstrates that growth of the cities is important institutional condition of social and economic rise and for Kazakhstan. So, urban saturation in top "thirty" of the countries on the Index of human development makes 80% and more. In the countries of OECD this indicator reached on average 77%. Actually similar situation is observed in the countries with the huge territories and low density of the population per unit area, like Kazakhstan, but with the GDP high level per capita or dynamically developing. So, in Australia the share of urban population constitutes about 90%, Canada - 82%, Argentina - 87%, Brazil - 75%. At the same time for all listed countries accommodation of the main part of urban population at the largest and the cities known around the world is characteristic (Sydney, Melbourne, Toronto, Montreal, Buenos Aires, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and others).
In this plan in 2006 the Strategy of territorial development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2015 was accepted. Uniqueness of the document is that for the first time in Kazakhstan as opposed to the existing theory of uniform development of areas acknowledged necessary forming of the centers of economic growth at the country and regional levels. It implied priority development of the capital, city of republican value - Almaty and the regional centers. In this Strategy the idea was pledged that there is direct dependence between growth of large and big cities or urbanistic processes and innovative development of economy, improvement of quality of life.
In general over the last 10 years the number of urban population increases with advancing in comparison with growth of rural population. So, the number of citizens from 2009 to 2019 (this for the beginning of year) increased by 23,5 of %, rural - by % 5,2, with growth of all population of the country on % 15,1.
Urban saturation in Kazakhstan made for the beginning of 2019 of 58,2 of % or increased for 2018 by percent point 0,8 (in 2017 - % 57,4, in 2016 - % 57,2, in 2015 - 56,8 of % and in 2014 - % 56,6).
However, despite the measures for development of large and big cities planned by the Strategy of territorial development of the Republic of Kazakhstan till 2015 and the Forecast scheme of territorial and spatial development of the country till 2020, rates of urbanization in Kazakhstan have ambiguous picture. So from 1990 to 2001 the share of urban population decreased with % 54,8 to 50,3 of % and for January 1, 2019 reached the % 58,2 level. These data demonstrate that in 28 years the actual growth of urban population constituted (for one reason or another) only about 3% whereas urban saturation from 56% to 70% was reached: South Korea in 7 years (1980-1987), Saudi Arabia - 8 years (1974-1982), Malaysia - 12 years (1996-2008).
Except insufficient rates of urbanization, in Kazakhstan there is some other problems of city development. It:
1) country "nedourbanizirovannost" as there are many small/average cities (27 mono - and 41 small cities), and (Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Shymkent) is the share of share of 3 large cities only to 21% of all population. It is lower, than in the majority of the countries of OECD - average: 38% (OECD, seminar in Astana, on December 4-7, 2018).
2) the high cost of life in the large cities of the country in comparison with the small cities and the rural zone, and also almost total absence of rent housing outside the capital (for example, in France 40% of housing stock - rent housing). In the cities of Almaty and Nour-Sultan life cost for 190% and 240% is more expensive, than on average over the country. As the representative of the WB at the seminar organized by OECD on December 4-7, 2018 in the city of Astana noted expenses on housing in the capital and Almaty "are more unavailable, than in the well-known exclusive cities, such as San Francisco and Vancouver". In this regard in present conditions rural families cannot freely move to the large cities where it is better than prospect of employment, and average earnings are higher. The high cost of life in the cities, along with lack of the market of rent housing, does the most dynamic settlements unavailable to the majority of families with the low income, that is villagers and inhabitants remote mono - and the small cities.
3) insufficient internal mobility of the population which is much lower, than in the USA, Japan, Canada, China and other economically developed states. However internal migration is decisive factor future economic growth of the country as concentration of specialists in the large cities which are development drivers is necessary.
4) the weak integration of rural population into the urban environment connected with forming of elements of "false urbanization" that is growth of urban population and expansion of the territories without involvement of new citizens in cultural economic environment. So, in the cities there are centers of rural conduct of life with marginalization of inhabitants and increase in share of self-employed.
5) prevalence of individual housing building, generally on the periphery of the cities, creates sparsely (noncompact) residential districts. These areas often are not fully provided with municipal infrastructure, first of all the sewerage.
6) according to recommendations of OECD (The overview of policy of city development developed and published according to the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of January 20, 2015 No. 10 "About signing of the Memorandum of understanding between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development about project implementation of the Country program for cooperation between Kazakhstan and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development") reduction in compliance of separate provisions of master plans of the cities with strategic and program documents and budgetary planning is necessary because at part of the cities concepts of development which in a complex would provide economic, social, ecological measures are insufficiently stated, and also also financings of upgrade of engineering infrastructure would resolve issues of rational land use (especially on the periphery of the cities). In regions obsolete approaches to city development remain, the modern quality standards and the principles of development of the urban environment are poorly applied. In the cities there are left specialized territories - the center suburb, dormitory and industrial districts, trade areas and rest areas unavailable to the population without use of transport. Housing building on the periphery of the cities is performed with increase in urban areas to the detriment of lands in agricultural purpose and zones of recreation.
In general insufficient urban saturation and as it is noted above insufficient share of the population of the large cities (country "nedourbanizirovannost") is attracted by essential disproportions in development of regions. So, on preliminary results of 2018, the gap on gross regional product (further - VRP) per capita between regions with the greatest and smallest values of this indicator (Atyrau and Turkestan regions) constitutes 15 times. It is connected, on the one hand, with the significant growth in VRP per capita on Atyrau area (with 9, 4 million tenges in 2017 to 12, 6 million tenges in 2018) caused by the developed price situation in the raw goods markets. At the same time, there is number of areas (Almaty, Jambyl, Turkestan) where VRP is per capita much lower (by 3-4 times) national average (3, 3 million tenges). These three regions are areas with the smallest urban saturation (less than 40%), with big share of rural population and, respectively, problems of employment and the low income.
Disproportions are also expressed in development of regions in unequal security with engineering and transport infrastructure. So, the specific weight of local highways in unsatisfactory condition is noted in areas: West Kazakhstan - 72%, Aktyubinsk - 50,5 of %, Atyrau - 48,9 of %, North Kazakhstan - 42% and Kyzylorda - 37%. Level of security of regions with centralized water supply shows that in the rural zone are least provided Jambyl (% 53,3), East Kazakhstan (% 51,1), West Kazakhstan (% 44,8), Kostanay (% 31,2), Pavlodar (% 27,9) areas. Are provided with systems of water disposal of SNP in areas: Mangystau - 3,8 of %, North Kazakhstan - 0,6 of %, Kyzylorda - % 0,4. According to the carried-out analysis of security with water disposal of SNP in Jambyl and West Kazakhstan areas these systems are absent. Besides, depreciation of electric utility power grids in the West Kazakhstan region reaches 85%, depreciation of the equipment of heatsources in certain settlements (Arkalyk and others) also reaches 85%.
Insufficient urban saturation, raw profile of economy of regions, except Nour-Sultan's cities and Almaty, low production of work in agricultural industry, insufficient amount of the involved investments, backwardness of certain sectors of economy (processing industry, internal tourism and others) also attract steady disproportion in the income of the population by areas.
These disproportions in the level of the income of the population on regions are solved by diversification of economy within the state program of industrial and innovative development, development of entrepreneurship within state programs of support and development of entrepreneurship, productive employment and mass entrepreneurship of Enbek. At the same time the accelerated managed country urbanization directly will influence decrease in disproportions between regions on the level of the income of the population in connection with increase in high-profit workplaces in the cities.
Concerning development of FGR. Unlike the stated above examples over the countries with the big territories where the main urban population is concentrated in megalopolises, in Kazakhstan it is necessary to develop in addition to million-plus cities and the regional centers. Correctness of this idea is confirmed by the National report on the human development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2018 prepared by PROON. So, in the document it is noted that "The different countries of the world should aim at realization of different models of concentration of the population in the large cities. Some countries give preference to development of supergorod with the population over 20 million people (for example, Shanghai or Beijing) or megaregions with the population to 55 million people (for example, the New York agglomeration uniting the most part of three states in the United States). However "wrong idea that megalopolises were driving force of global growth within the last 15 years is widespread... On the contrary, it is expected that by 2025 577 average cities (with the population from 150 000 to 10 million people) will provide more than a half of global growth" (McKinsey, 2011).".
In this plan within Elbasa's order in 2019 akimats of areas, cities of republican value and the capital develop strategies of development for the large cities of the country till 2050 taking into account the perspective number of urban population - Nour-Sultan's cities, by Almaty, Shymkent, the regional centers and the city of Semey.
For rendering the organizational and methodical help to local executive bodies the method of development of strategies of development for the cities of republican and regional values is accepted (the order of the Minister of national economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan of January 11, 2019 No. 3). In this technique recommendations about procedure for development of strategy of the large cities, structure of the document, approaches of statement of vision of development of the large cities on prospect are made. In general, despite the available distinctions in the current social and economic status of the large and big cities of Kazakhstan, there are general conceptual trends (tendencies) of their development which need to be considered in case of development of the specified strategy.
These tendencies need to be opened in appropriate sections of strategies of development for the cities of republican value, the capital, the regional centers and the cities of Semey:
1) strategic vision of development of the city and its role in world and regional (Eurasian) space;
2) strategic directions of development of the city:
system diversification of economy (new technologies in production; digitalization of economy; green economy, close research and production connection of universities and companies; development of service industry, including tourism, financial services and others; development of creative sectors of economy (advertizing activities, architecture, design, visual modern art and others); forming of brand of the city for long-term outlook; creation of comfortable conditions of accommodation for high-class foreign specialists and domestic talents;
human development (creation of conditions for receipt of high quality school, technical and professional, higher and postgraduate education, forming of universities of world/regional (Eurasian) level, involvement of branches of universities, known in the world, the developed sphere of culture, high-quality health care and healthy long life, high income of the population, affordable and comfortable housing, high quality engineering and transport infrastructure, the developed public transport);
environment: high-quality ecology and the comfortable urban environment (compact urban development, "step" availability of objects mainly on foot or by bicycle, the green urban environment and others);
smartcity/digitalization - forming and use of modern information systems for effective management of city infrastructure (safety, housing and communal services, transport, education, health care, the social sphere, ecology, management of the city, business and others);
city planning. Strategies of development for the cities shall provide transparency, support by business community and the population of the planned measures for town-planning and architectural activities, compliance of town-planning planning of the strategy of development for the specific city. In case of determination of target indicators of city planning it is necessary to use approaches of the UN-Habitat, OECD and the WB, survey results of business community and the population on the offered spatial development of the city.
In general on the project of the strategy of development for the city public hearings according to the standard requirements to procedure for the organization and carrying out public hearings approved by the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of December 31, 2015 No. 1191 shall be led.
Within the President's letter of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the people of Kazakhstan of October 5, 2018 the task on ensuring growth of welfare of Kazakhstan citizens by means of increase in the income and quality of life is set.
In the Message it was noted that each region and the large city shall develop, relying on own model of sustained economic growth and employment, taking into account the available competitive advantages.
In this regard it is entrusted to develop system of regional standards for various settlements - from basic villages to the cities of republican value (further - system of regional standards) which would include specific indicators of the list and availability of the social benefits and the state services, security with transport, cultural and sports, business, production, digital and other infrastructure.
In implementation of this order in April, 2019 the joint order of the central state bodies (the ministry of national economy, culture and sport, the industry and infrastructure development, science and education, digital development, the defense and aerospace industry, health care) according to system of regional standards was accepted.
The system of regional standards provides minimum obligatory level of availability of objects and services (benefits) to the population depending on type (the city, the village) and the size (population) of settlements.
The system of regional standards is intended:
1) for the central state bodies - when planning social and economic, regional development of the country;
2) for local executive bodies - for the purpose of the solution of regional problems and improvement of quality of life in specific settlements.
The following principles of system of regional standards are determined:
1) for the city area: security of all cities with objects and services (benefits) in the principle of "20-minute step availability" of the population to them. For implementation of system of regional standards in city settlements the decision to conditionally divide the selitebny territory of the city into planning sectors with the population about 10 thousand people in everyone and to place the obligatory list of infrastructure facilities and services in the territory of each planning sector is made. At the same time the cities with population less than 10 thousand people are offered to be considered one planning sector.
2) for the rural zone: security of villages with objects and services (benefits) based on their prospects of development (the district centers, the centers of rural districts, other villages with small population).
For the district centers the list of objects and services (benefits) consists of 32 names, the centers of rural districts - 24, other villages - 12, for the planning sector in the city - 51 (according to appendix 1 to this State program).
In general determination of criteria and requirements of system of regional standards is reflected in the Forecast scheme of territorial and spatial development of the country till 2030. For the purpose of implementation of the higher document of System of state planning in the Republic of Kazakhstan provisions of system of regional standards are integrated into this State program.
In addition to lyudnost of settlements, condition of social and engineering infrastructure, cost of life and other parameters of quality of life important factor of appeal of the cities and other settlements is safety of activity and normal ecology.
It should be noted that questions of safety of regions are reflected in one of strategic directions of long-term development of Kazakhstan provided by the Concept on inclusion of Kazakhstan into number of 30 most developed states of the world, the Republic of Kazakhstan approved by the Presidential decree of January 17, 2014 No. 732. According to strategic direction to the settlement term of implementation of the Concept it is necessary to provide all large cities and settlements with the population of 5 thousand and more people the guaranteed protection of the public fire service.
Realization of this direction will demand additional creation of 532 firefighters of divisions, from them 130 - due to ensuring fire safety at the central level, 402 - local executive bodies within the allocated powers according to article 15 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "About civil protection".
These measures will allow to create effective response system on emergency situations, to reduce death and injuring of people, to reduce material damage and as result, to increase the level of security with fire-proof protection of the country with % 56,6 to 100%.
It should be noted that now fire-proof protection of the territory of the republic is performed by 422 firefighters of division and for the last 11 years in the country only 18 buildings of fire stations are built (of them 4 - in Nour-Sultan's city, 3 - in the Shchuchinsko-Borovsky resort area, 2 - in the city of Almaty, on one in the cities of Kokshetau, Taraz, Zhanaozen, Karaganda, Aktobe, Shymkent and Aralsk, and also in the settlements of Ganyushkino of the Atyrau area and Dostyk of Almaty region).
Annually divisions of the public fire service make more than 50 thousand departures on alarm, including more than 16 thousand departures on the fires and more 3,5 of one thousand on carrying out wrecking. On average 600 people annually perish from the fires, loss of property exceeds 6 billion tenges.
One of the factors which are negatively influencing consequences of emergency situations is the remote arrangement of objects of fire services that attracts late arrival of fire-fighting crews to places of challenges.
According to the technical regulation "General Requirements to Fire Safety" dislocation of divisions of fire service in settlements is determined proceeding from condition of arrival of the first fire division to the place of challenge in the cities no later than in 10 minutes, and for SNP - no later than in 20 minutes from the challenge moment.
Now the indicator of timely arrival (normative reaction) of fire-fighting crews to the place of challenge exceeds the established value and constitutes:
1) in Nour-Sultan's cities, Almaty and Shymkent - 7,6 of %, 33,2 of % and 32% of departures, respectively;
2) in the regional centers - % 24,5;
3) in other cities - % 18,1.
Time of reaction of fire divisions in the cities exceeds on average for 5 minutes of the established normative 10 minutes.
The low density of fire divisions reduces opportunity to react quickly to the fires and emergency situations, especially in the rural zone. In certain regions the indicator of time of rapid response constitutes 36 minutes, and at times reaches till 1 o'clock. At the same time, from total quantity of the fires which happened in the residential sector, more than 44% are the share of the rural zone.
In the rural zone the indicator of normative reaction of fire-fighting crews to the place of challenge exceeds the established value (more than 20 minutes) and constitutes 38,1 of % of departures.
Growth of the fires and the importance of their consequences dictate need of expansion of infrastructure of fire brigades. In this regard questions of ensuring fire safety require active consideration, as at the level of the central state bodies, and local executive bodies.
One more problem is gradual violation of the bearing capability of the buildings of the fire stations placed in adapted built in 50-70 years of last century and not meeting the requirements of construction and sanitary standards (231 or 55% of such buildings).
Now as a result of long operation 18 (% 5,5) buildings of fire stations are in critical condition and according to the conclusions of specialists because of threat of collapse of the bearing structures of the building are subject to demolition (in West Kazakhstan - 6, Aktyubinsk - 3, Akmola - 2, Shymkent, Atyrau, Pavlodar, Jambyl, Kostanay, Karaganda, Almaty regions - on 1).
For the purpose of the solution of the specified problematic issues and preserving radius of servicing of the specified fire divisions, and also providing standard time of emergency response according to the established regulations the construction of new fire stations instead of dangerous structures is required.
The optimal solution of the matter, and also economy of budgetary funds requires installation of modular designs with use pre-fabricated wall sandwich panels and module containers which technology is actively applied both in industrial, and in housing construction in Kazakhstan and abroad.
Within this State program according to its settlement terms of realization are offered demolition emergency and installation of 18 modular fire stations.
In the territory of the republic of 156 settlements in the Almaty, East Kazakhstan, Jambyl and Turkestan regions, and also the city of Almaty, Shymkent are under the threat of torrential emissions.
On the republic 617 mudflow and 306 opolzneopasny sites are revealed. Over 10 thousand objects and more than 60 thousand inhabitants get to zone of possible impact of mud streams and landslides.
Besides, in the territory of the republic there are 599 avalanche sites, from them over 200 directly threaten more than 200 various objects, sites automobile and the railroads (The East Kazakhstan, Almaty regions, Almaty), and also one thousand 4,9 to inhabitants (Almaty, the East Kazakhstan, Almaty, Turkestan, Jambyl regions).
In this regard, providing with protection of the population requires at the expense of means of local budgets construction:
1) selezaderzhivayushchy dikes on the rivers Turgen, Cora, Chazha in Almaty region, on the river to the Measure in Jambyl area;
2) selezashchitny shore protection dams in basins of the rivers Tentek in Almaty region, Sarymsakta in the East Kazakhstan region;
3) snegozaderzhivayushchy boards in the mountains Mokhnatka in the city of Almaty, Zubovka in the East Kazakhstan region;
4) snegozaderzhivayushchy boards along the highway "Oskemen-Samara" (132-137 km) in the East Kazakhstan region, in the gorge "Koksay" of Jambyl area;
5) stabilization of the bed of the river Dietary supplements within the city of Shymkent;
6) construction against landslide in river basin Talgar in Almaty region.
The warning system of civil protection existing in the country is put into operation in the late seventies of last century. The available equipment for 100% analog also does not provide integration with modern digital systems of information transfer. Maintenance of the equipment in operating state is extremely difficult as it is laid off.
At the territorial level for the emergency notification of the population of the country there are 2236 electrosirens which it is possible to notify about 60% of the population living in the cities and the district centers (installation of 4800 electrosirens in addition is required).
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan together with local executive bodies carries out work on creation of local warning systems in the regional and district centers at the expense of means of local budgets.
For the purpose of maintenance in permanent readiness and identifications of the facts of failure of the equipment of the notification holding monthly trainings with giving of single signal of the notification "Attention to all is organized!" (by means of start of electrosirens).
The greatest need for equipment is observed by means of the notification in the Aktyubinsk, Atyrau, Jambyl, Kostanay, West Kazakhstan, Kyzylorda and Turkestan regions where the equipment percent electrosirens does not exceed 20% of total requirement of the region. Along with it it is necessary to carry out work on creation of warning systems in Akmola, Almaty, Mangystau, East Kazakhstan, North Kazakhstan, Pavlodar, Karaganda regions, Nour-Sultan's cities, Almaty, Shymkent.
In the sphere of ecological regulation work on implementation of standards and requirements of OECD is conducted.
So in the sphere of waste management the mechanism of the expanded obligations of producers (EOP) allowed to develop infrastructure for separate collection of household waste: the number of the companies grew from 115 to 170, the network of containers for collection of mercury lamps in 11 regions, separate collection of electric equipment in 9 regions is created, the network of collection points for salvage works in 6 regions. Thus on the republic separate collection at different stages is implemented in 51 city and the area, and sorting - in 30 settlements. On sorting complexes over one thousand workplaces are created.
Since 2019 burial of plastic, waste paper, cardboard and waste of paper, glass is forbidden. However the started mechanism is not effective as the corresponding infrastructure is not available regions.
In general, questions of safe handling of waste require creation of the system approach including measures of the state support.
The important mechanism of strengthening of economic competitiveness of regions is the intensification of the interregional communications directed to the maximum use of potential of development of non-oil industries and increase in depth of conversion of raw material resources.
Now interregional cooperation between regions is generally oriented to supply of raw materials, materials, accessories and the equipment by domestic manufacturers to the companies of raw, construction, energy complexes and housing and communal services (further - housing and public utilities) and has not system not purposeful character. In case of projects implementation availability of already operating plants of this profile in other areas is not considered that creates the inefficient (unnecessary) competition in the goods markets.
Between the companies of areas cooperation communications remain poorly developed that creates essential obstacles for successful realization of the priorities connected with support of industrial production and provision of services.
Cities of "the first level" (agglomeration)
City agglomerations objectively become key forms of modern resettlement in the majority of the countries of the world. In the USA more than 76% of all population live in agglomerations, the largest of which are New York (11,3 of one thousand sq.km, 23,3 of one million people) and Los Angeles (5,8 of one thousand sq.km, 18,6 of one million people) agglomerations.
World-class agglomerations in Europe are London (11 thousand sq.km, 13,4 of one million people) and Parisian (12 thousand sq.km, more than 12 million people).
The urbanized territories in China - Shanghai (7,1 of one thousand sq.km, 18,6 of one million people), Brazil - Rio de Janeiro (4,6 of one thousand sq.km, 12,1 of one million people), Argentina - Buenos Aires (2,7 of one thousand sq.km, 14,6 of one million people), India - Kolkata (1,8 of one thousand sq.km, 15,6 of one million people) and other developing countries are in high gear created.
Development of agglomerations in developing countries has the specifics. The model of the growing concentration of the population and all spheres of economy in the few leaders and the largest centers is characteristic of them. The population overflow from the rural zone in the large and largest city centers will proceed high rates.
In the report of the WB on world development for 2009 "New view on economic geography" the conclusion is drawn that "half of amount of world production is concentrated in one and a half percent of the territory of the planet. Occupying all with 0,5 of percent of the territory of Egypt, Big Cairo makes more than a half of GDP of the country".
That the cities play important role in economic development of the countries, witness also other data. So in 2015 85% of world GDP were created in the cities (PwC, 2019). The same year 19% of the population of the earth lived in 300 largest cities of the world and these cities created 48% of world GDP (Ernst and Young, 2015).
In the report of the World Economic Forum (WEF) on global competitiveness for 2016-2017 the emphasis on importance of competitiveness of the cities raising competitiveness of the countries and their regions is placed.
These tendencies can be traced also across Kazakhstan. So on preliminary results of 2018 the specific weight of VRP in GDP of the country on Nour-Sultan's cities and Almaty made 9, % and 20,6 of % respectively (in 2017 10,6 of % and 21,8 of %, 2016 - 10,4 of % and 22,6 of %, in 2015 - 11,8 of % and 22,3 of % and in 2014 - 10,1 of % and 20,,5 of %), or in the % 30,4 amount (per capita in limits 5, by 5-6,7 million tenges) that significantly differs from other regions.
However, if development of the city centers "is neglected", uncontrollable processes of population shift of the rural zone and the small cities with low economic potential can lead to forming of excessive load of capacities of housing-and-municipal infrastructure, origin on the periphery of residential locations of zones of social and economic marginalization.
Similar tendencies are characteristic of separate city agglomerations in the countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa, promoting preservation not only economic obsolescence and inequality, but also social instability.
Now in Kazakhstan the cities of "the first level" determine agglomerations with the centers in Nour-Sultan's cities, Almaty, Shymkent and Aktobe. The created city agglomerations concentrate more than a third of all population of the country.
In 2018 annual average population of agglomerations with the centers in the cities of "the first level" made the 7th 005, one thousand people that constitutes 38,1 of % of the total number of the population of the country (in 2017 - 6 525,6 thousand people, in 2016 - the 6th 605, one thousand people, in 2015 - 6 088,3 thousand people and in 2014 - 5 790,1 thousand people). At the same time population of the cities of Nour-Sultan, Almaty and Shymkent already exceeds the level behind which in the conditions of Kazakhstan agglomerative effects (500 thousand people) are implemented.
For the problem resolution of agglomerations since 2013 the interregional actions plans approved by the orders of the Government on development of the Astana and Almaty agglomerations till 2020 were implemented (of June 18, 2013 No. 611 and of June 6, 2013 No. 581), since 2014 - the Comprehensive plan of social and economic development of the settlements adjacent to the city of Astana, till 2020 (the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of June 19, 2014 No. 681).
In Almaty region since 2008 the project on development of 4 satellite towns of the city of Almaty of "G4 City" is implemented.
The order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 24, 2016 No. 302 approves the Interregional scheme of territorial development of the Almaty agglomeration. The feasibility study on construction of the first satellite town of the city of Almaty (Gate City) till 2030 is developed.
The first satellite town of Gate City (City gate) is planned as the business center with the housing estate and industrial zone for placement of the companies of agro-industrial cluster.
According to the master plan Gate City (No. 14-80) the territory of the satellite town is approved by the decision of the Almaty regional maslikhat of April 26, 2017 constitutes 2370 hectares, forecast population till 2030 - 60 thousand people. Functional filling: the living area is limited to the southern part (304 hectares, 1,4 of mln sq.m of housing), work places of application on transport and service node, industrial zone (535 hectares) and the companies of agro-industrial cluster will be to the north provided.
Based on the feasibility study for the "Construction of 4 Satellite Towns of Almaty in Almaty Region — Basic Provisions of Master Plans" project (FEO is approved by the decision of maslikhat of Almaty region of May 12, 2016 No. 2-22) developed and project works "Construction of facilities of engineering and communication infrastructure of the first satellite town of "Gate City" in Almaty region are begun. 1st queue".
Considering special relevance of forming of agglomerations with competitive economy and high quality of life of the population, according to the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan of July 16, 2001 "About architectural, town-planning and construction activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan" and in pursuance of basic provisions of the General scheme of the organization of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan interregional schemes of territorial development Almaty (the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of May 24, 2016 No. 302), Astana are accepted (the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of November 8, 2017 No. 726), Shymkent (the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of February 22, 2018 No. 74) and Aktyubinsk (the order of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan of March 3, 2018 No. 109) agglomerations.
Interregional schemes are the town-planning strategy determining the prospects of development of the territories of agglomerations and their long-term need for infrastructure. The realization priority, sources and the amounts of financing of provisions of interregional schemes are determined at the level of state programs and development programs of the territories.
In general it is necessary to consider that competitiveness of the cities depends on the level of human capital, the circle of sustainable social and economic development, openness of the cities for global economy, management of development of agglomerations on the principles of inclusivity (openness). Also for effective forming of agglomerations it is necessary to take measures for the advancing development of engineering and social infrastructure, upgrade of housing on suburbs of megalopolises. In effective forming of agglomerations the coordinated development of the center of agglomeration with mono - both the small cities and other settlements located in peripheral zone of agglomeration is of also great importance. So, are in zone of influence of the city of Nour-Sultan the small city of Akkol, the city of Almaty - Esik, Kapshagay, Kaskelen, Talgar, the city of Shymkent - Lenger, the city of Aktobe - the monotown of Alga, Khromtau. This close interrelation consists, first of all, in the form of permanent (daily) pendular migration to the large cities.
The solution of questions of development of agglomerations needs to be considered in case of development and implementation of both state programs, and development programs of the corresponding territories.
In the large cities within the State program "Digital Kazakhstan" work on implementation of the concept "the smart city" which implies integration of information and communication technologies (further - ICT) and the Internet of prophetic (IoT) for management of city property for the purpose of improvement of quality of life and increase in efficiency of servicing of the population is begun. ICT allow akimats of the cities to interact directly with communities and city infrastructure and to watch what occurs in the city. In general the project of the "smart" city consists, generally of the following components: decisions in the field of power delivery and energy saving; water resources management: upgrade of water systems, monitoring of consumption, system of ecological safety; buildings in which all engineering and information systems are integrated into single system of management; use of information technologies by provision of the state services.
The international consulting company McKinsey predicts emergence of 600 "smart" cities by 2020. According to the forecast they will generate at least two thirds of world GDP. In this regard this important work needs to be continued as in the centers of agglomerations, and other large and big cities.
Cities of "the second level"
Now in Kazakhstan 14 cities of regional value which are the administrative centers of areas (city of Kokshetau, Taldykorgan, Atyrau, Uralsk, Taraz, Karaganda, Kostanay, Kyzylorda, Aktau, Pavlodar, Petropavlovsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Aktobe and Turkestan) belong to the cities of "the second level". At the same time the center of the Aktyubinsk region the city of Aktobe within the Forecast scheme and this State program is identified as the city kernel of agglomeration. The city of regional value which is not the regional center Semey is also carried to the city of "the second level". It is connected with the fact that the city of Semey on structure of economy and population cannot be identified as mono - or the small city. At the same time dynamics of number of socio-economic indexes in recent years witnesses Semey about need of acceptance of additional measures for development of the city. Whereas the cities of "the second level" which are the regional centers develop the advancing rates in comparison with other territory (settlements) of areas now.
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