of June 19, 2003 No. 962-IV
About protection of lands
This Law determines legal, economic and social basis of protection of lands for the purpose of ensuring their rational use, reproduction and increase in fertility of soils, other useful properties of the earth, preserving ecological functions of soil cover and environmental protection.
Protection of lands - system of the legal, organizational, economic, technological and other measures directed to rational use of lands, the prevention of unreasonable withdrawal of lands of agricultural purpose for nonagricultural needs, protection against harmful anthropogenous effects, reproduction and increase in fertility of soils, performance improvement of lands of forest fund, providing specific mode of use of lands nature protection, improving, recreational and historical and cultural appointment.
Other concepts and terms applied in this Law are used in the following value:
agrolandscape - landscape which basis agricultural holdings and forest plantings, in particular constitute forest belts and other protective plantings;
agrochemical inspection of soils - obligatory continuous inspection of agricultural holdings for the purpose of the state control of change of indicators of fertility and pollution of soils;
threshold limit value of pollutants - the most admissible amount of pollutants in soils which is not causing negative ecological effects for their fertility, general state of environment, quality of agricultural products and health of the person;
humus - the organic component of the soil which is formed in the course of biochemical decomposition of vegetable and animal remaining balance and creating its fertility;
the soil - the natural and historical organomineral body formed on the surface of crust and which is the center of the greatest concentration of nutrients, basis of life and development of humanity thanks to the most valuable property - to fertility;
soil weight - the removed fertile layer of earth;
soil inspection - determination of genetic structure and properties of soils, structures of soil cover;
soil sickness - violation of the bioenergy mode of the soil and sharp decrease in productivity of crops owing to their permanent cultivation or frequent return on the previous field of sevosmena that leads to deterioration in high-quality condition of the soil, accumulating in the soil of specific pathogenic microorganisms and seeds of weeds;
degradation of soils - deterioration in useful properties and fertility of the soil owing to impact of natural or anthropogenous factors;
degradation of lands - natural or anthropogenous simplification of landscape, deterioration in condition, structure, useful properties and functions of lands and other natural components which are organically connected with the earth;
pollution of soils - accumulating in soils of the substances which are negatively influencing their fertility and other useful properties;
land resources - cumulative natural resource of land surface as space basis of resettlement and economic activity, fixed asset of production in rural and forestry;
the earth - land surface with soil, minerals and other natural elements, integrally combined and functioning together with it;
preservation of lands - the termination of economic use the uncertain term and grassing or afforestation of the degraded and unproductive lands which economic use ecologically and economically inefficiently, and also the parcels of land tekhnogenno contaminated on which it is impossible to receive environmentally friendly products and stay of people on these parcels of land is dangerous to their health;
protection of soils - system of the legal, organizational, technological and other measures directed to preserving and reproduction of fertility and integrity of soils, their protection against degradation, conducting agricultural production with respect for soil-protective technologies and providing ecological safety of the environment;
the broken lands - the lands which lost the economic and ecological value owing to violation of soil cover as a result of productive activity of the person or action of the natural phenomena;
natural and agricultural, ekologo-economic, antierosion and other types of division into districts (zoning) of lands is division of the territory taking into account natural and agrobiological requirements to cultivation of crops, and also the territories having the corresponding similarity on certain signs;
fertility of the soil - capability of the soil to satisfy the needs of plants for batteries, water, air and heat for enough for their normal development which in total are the main indicator of quality of the soil;
the steppe site - the parcel of land covered long-term grassy (cereal, wormwood and cereal, rich in herbs and cereal, meadow-steppe) the vegetation which is created in the conditions of insufficient moistening.
Object of special protection of the state are all lands within the territory of Ukraine.
The basic principles of state policy in the field of protection of lands are:
ensuring protection of lands as main national wealth of the Ukrainian people;
priority of requirements of ecological safety in use of the earth as space basis, natural resource and fixed asset of production;
indemnification, the lands caused by violation of the law of Ukraine about protection;
regulation and systematic restriction of impact of economic activity for land resources;
combination of measures of economic incentives and legal responsibility in the field of protection of lands;
publicity in the solution of questions of protection of lands, use of means of the Government budget of Ukraine and local budgets on protection of lands.
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