of March 5, 1998 No. 188/98-BP
About the Main directions of state policy of Ukraine in the field of environmental protection, use of natural resources and providing ecological safety
The Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine decides:
1. Approve the Main directions of state policy of Ukraine in the field of environmental protection, use of natural resources and providing ecological safety.
2. To provide to the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine realization of the Main directions of state policy of Ukraine in the field of environmental protection, uses of natural resources and providing ecological safety.
Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine A. Moroz
Approved by the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine of March 5, 1998 No. 188/98-BP
The main directions of state policy of Ukraine in the field of environmental protection, use of natural resources and providing ecological safety (further - the Main directions) are developed according to article 16 of the Constitution of Ukraine by which it is determined that providing ecological safety and maintenance of ecological equilibrium in the territory of Ukraine, overcoming consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophic crash - catastrophic crashes of planetary scale, preserving gene pool of the Ukrainian N of sort is obligation of the state.
The present ecological situation in Ukraine can be characterized as crisis, created during the long period because of neglect by the objective laws of development and reproduction of prirodnoresursny complex of Ukraine. There were structural deformations of the national economy in case of which the benefit was provided to development in Ukraine of syryedobyvayushchy, most ecologically dangerous industries.
The high specific weight of resource-intensive and power-intensive technologies which implementation and building-up was performed by the "cheapest" method - without construction of the corresponding treatment facilities is peculiar to economy of Ukraine. It was possible in the absence of effectively operating legal, administrative and economic mechanisms of environmental management and without requirements of environmental protection. These and other factors, in particular low level of ecological consciousness of society, led to considerable degradation of the environment of Ukraine, excessive pollution of surface and underground water, atmospheric air and lands, accumulating in very large numbers harmful, including highly toxic, production wastes. Such processes continued decades and led to sharp deterioration in the state of health of people, reduction of birth rate and increase in death rate, and it threatens with extinction and biological and genetic degradation of the people of Ukraine.
Exclusive feature of ecological condition of Ukraine is that ecologically critical local situations are complicated by big regional crises. The Chernobyl catastrophic crash with its long-term medicobiological, economic and social consequences served as origin in Ukraine to the situation coming to the level of global environmental disaster.
The main reasons which resulted in the menacing state of environment are:
the obsolete production technology and the equipment, the high power consumption and materials consumption exceeding the corresponding indicators of developed countries by two-three times;
high level of concentration of industrial facilities;
adverse structure of industrial production with high concentration of ecologically dangerous productions;
lack of proper nature protection systems (treatment facilities, turnover systems of water supply, etc.), low level of operation of the existing nature protection objects;
lack of proper legal and economic mechanisms which would stimulate development of ecologically safe technologies and nature protection systems;
lack of proper control of environmental protection.
The metallurgical industry including ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, coke and rolling production, and also adjacent auxiliary objects and processes is one of the most polluting industries which emissions from stationary sources of pollution reach 38 percent of total quantity of pollutants.
Impact of the companies of petrochemical complex on condition of the surrounding environment is characterized by emissions in the atmosphere of hydrocarbons, sulfuric acid, hydrogen sulfide, mercury, fluoric and other harmful connections. In a number of regions of Ukraine high concentration of chemical and petrochemical productions led to excessively high level of pollution of sources of water supply. In open reservoirs the chemical companies dump annually 70 million cubic meters crude or not enough cleared drains.
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