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FEDERAL LAW OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

of January 9, 1996 No. 3-FZ

About radiation safety of the population

(The last edition from 19-07-2011)

Accepted by the State Duma on December 5, 1995

This Federal Law determines the legal basis of ensuring radiation safety of the population for the purpose of protection of his health.

Chapter I. General provisions

Article 1. Basic concepts

For the purpose of this Federal Law the following basic concepts are applied:

radiation safety of the population (further - radiation safety) - condition of security of these and future generations of people from impact of ionizing radiation, harmful to their health;

ionizing radiation - the radiation which is created in case of radioactive decay nuclear transformations, braking of charged particles in substance and forms in case of interaction with environment ions of different signs;

natural radiation background - the radiation dose created by the space radiation and radiation of the natural radionuclides which are naturally distributed in the earth, water, air, other elements of the biosphere, foodstuff and human body;

tekhnogenno the changed radiation background - the natural radiation background changed as a result of activities of the person;

effective dose - the size of impact of ionizing radiation used as measure of risk of emergence of the remote consequences of radiation of human body and its separate bodies taking into account their radio sensitivity;

the sanitary protection zone - the territory around source of ionizing radiation on which the level of radiation of people in the conditions of normal operation of this source can exceed the set radiation dose limit for the population. In the sanitary protection zone permanent and temporary residence of people is forbidden, the regime of restriction of economic activity is introduced and radiation control is carried out;

observation zone - the territory outside the sanitary protection zone on which radiation control is carried out;

the worker - physical person which permanently or temporarily works directly with sources of ionizing radiation;

radiation accident - the loss of management of source of ionizing radiation caused by defect of the equipment, the wrong actions of workers (personnel), natural disasters or other reasons which could give or led to radiation of people above of the established regulations or to radioactive environmental pollution.

Article 2. Legal regulation in the field of ensuring radiation safety

1. Legal regulation in the field of ensuring radiation safety is performed by this Federal Law and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, and also the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation.

2. The Federal Laws, other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, the laws and other regulatory legal acts of subjects of the Russian Federation cannot establish the regulations reducing the requirements to radiation safety and guarantees of their providing established by this Federal Law.

3. The conventional principles and rules of international law and the international agreements of the Russian Federation in the field of ensuring radiation safety are component of system of law of the Russian Federation according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

If the international treaty of the Russian Federation establishes other rules, than those which are stipulated by the legislation the Russian Federation in the field of radiation safety are applied rules of the international treaty.

Article 3. Principles of ensuring radiation safety

1. The basic principles of ensuring radiation safety are:

the principle of regulation - not excess of admissible limits of individual doses of radiation of citizens from all sources of ionizing radiation;

the principle of reasons - prohibition of all types of activity on use of sources of ionizing radiation in case of which the advantage received for the person and society does not exceed risk of the possible harm done by radiation, additional to natural radiation background;

the principle of optimization - maintenance at perhaps low and achievable level taking into account economic and social factors of individual doses of radiation and number of the irradiated persons when using any source of ionizing radiation.

2. In case of radiation accident the system of radiation safety of the population is based on the following principles:

expected actions for mitigation of consequences of radiation accident shall bring more benefit, than harm;

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