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CIVIL CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

(part one)

of November 30, 1994 No. 51-FZ

(The last edition from 23-05-2018)

Accepted by the State Duma of the Russian Federation on October 21, 1994

Section I. General provisions

Subsection 1. Basic provisions

Chapter 1. Civil legislation

Article 1. Main beginnings of the civil legislation

1. The civil legislation is based on recognition of equality of participants of the relations regulated by it, security of property, freedoms of the agreement, inadmissibility of any intervention someone in private affairs, need of free implementation of the civil laws, ensuring recovery of the violated rights, their judicial protection.

2. Citizens (physical persons) and legal entities acquire and perform the civil laws the will and in the interest. They are free in establishment of the rights and obligations on the basis of the agreement and in determination of any terms of the contract which are not contradicting the legislation.

The civil laws can be limited based on the Federal Law and only in that measure in what it is necessary for the purpose of protection of bases of the constitutional system, morality, health, the rights and legitimate interests of other persons, ensuring defense of the country and safety of the state.

3. In case of establishment, implementation and protection of the civil laws and in case of execution of civil obligations participants of civil legal relationship shall act honesty.

4. Nobody has the right to take benefit from the illegal or unfair behavior.

5. Goods, services and financial resources freely move in all territory of the Russian Federation.

Restrictions of movement of goods and services can be entered according to the Federal Law if it is necessary for safety, protection of life and human health, conservation and cultural values.

Article 2. The relations regulated by the civil legislation

1. The civil legislation determines legal status of participants of civil circulation, the basis of origin and procedure of the property right and other corporeal rights, the rights to results of intellectual activities and means of individualization (the intellectual rights) equated to them, governs the relations connected with participation in corporate bodies or with management of them (the corporate relations), contractual and other commitments, and also other property and personal non-property relations based on equality, autonomy of will and property independence of participants.

Participants of the relations regulated by the civil legislation are citizens and legal entities. Also Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation and municipalities can participate in the relations regulated by the civil legislation (Article 124).

The civil legislation governs the relations between persons performing business activity or with their participation, proceeding from the fact that the independent, performed on the risk activities directed to systematic profit earning from use of property, sales of goods, performance of works or rendering services are entrepreneurial. Persons performing business activity shall be registered in this quality in the procedure established by the law if other is not provided by this Code.

The rules established by the civil legislation are applied to the relations with participation of foreign citizens, persons without citizenship and foreign legal entities if other is not provided by the Federal Law.

2. Inaliennable human rights and freedoms and other non-material benefits are protected by the civil legislation if other does not follow from being of these non-material benefits.

3. To the property relations based on administrative or other imperious subordination of one party another including to tax and other financial and administrative relations, the civil legislation is not applied if other is not stipulated by the legislation.

Article 3. The civil legislation and other acts containing regulations of the civil law

1. According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation the civil legislation is under authority of the Russian Federation.

2. The civil legislation consists of of this Code and other Federal Laws accepted according to it (further - the laws) governing the relations specified in Items 1 and 2 of Article 2 of this Code.

The regulations of the civil law containing in other laws shall correspond to this Code.

2.1. Introduction of amendments to this Code, and also suspension of action or recognition voided provisions of this Code is performed by the separate laws. The provisions providing introduction of amendments to this Code, suspension of action or recognition voided provisions of this Code, cannot be included in texts of the laws changing (suspending or recognizing voided) other legal acts of the Russian Federation or containing independent subject of legal regulation.

3. The relations specified in Items 1 and 2 of Article 2 of this Code can be regulated also by presidential decrees of the Russian Federation which shall not contradict this Code and other laws.

4. On the basis and in pursuance of of this Code and other laws, presidential decrees of the Russian Federation the Government of the Russian Federation has the right to accept the resolutions containing regulations of the civil law.

5. In case of contradiction of the presidential decree of the Russian Federation or the order of the Government of the Russian Federation to this Code or other law this Code or the relevant law is applied.

6. Action and application of the regulations of the civil law containing in presidential decrees of the Russian Federation and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation (further - other legal acts), are determined by rules of this Chapter.

7. The ministries and other federal executive bodies can issue the acts containing regulations of the civil law in cases and in the limits provided by this Code, other laws and other legal acts.

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